In one instance she writes: Will do as wife says but doubts if wife knows or cares anything about public affairs or politics. The interviews came at a time when suffragist activists across the country were pursuing a two-pronged approach to win the vote. The State Archives has numerous letters that were sent to Holcomb at the time, some from across the country, either urging him to stand his ground or to call legislators in for a vote. After the 36th state ratified the 19th Amendment, Holcomb called a special session.
Connecticut first voted to ratify the amendment on Sept. In , five women were elected to the Connecticut House of Representatives. Local Search Site Search. Your article has been sent. Sorry, we could not find your e-mail or password. Please try again, or click here to retrieve your password. A editorial predicted that with suffrage women would make impossible demands, such as, "serving as soldiers and sailors, police patrolmen or firemen Anti-suffrage forces, initially called the "remonstrants", organized as early as when the Woman's Anti-Suffrage Association of Washington was formed.
It claimed , members and opposed women's suffrage, feminism, and socialism. It argued that woman suffrage "would reduce the special protections and routes of influence available to women, destroy the family, and increase the number of socialist-leaning voters. Middle and upper class anti-suffrage women were conservatives with several motivations. Society women in particular had personal access to powerful politicians, and were reluctant to surrender that advantage.
Most often the antis believed that politics was dirty and that women's involvement would surrender the moral high ground that women had claimed, and that partisanship would disrupt local club work for civic betterment, as represented by the General Federation of Women's Clubs. Its credo, as set down by its president Josephine Jewell Dodge , was:.
We believe in every possible advancement to women.
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We believe that this advancement should be along those legitimate lines of work and endeavor for which she is best fitted and for which she has now unlimited opportunities. We believe this advancement will be better achieved through strictly non-partisan effort and without the limitations of the ballot. We believe in Progress, not in Politics for women. They were very similar to the suffragists themselves, but used a counter-crusading style warning of the evils that suffrage would bring to women.
They rejected leadership by men and stressed the importance of independent women in philanthropy and social betterment. The organization moved to Washington to oppose the federal constitutional amendment for suffrage, becoming the "National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage" NAOWS , where it was taken over by men, and assumed a much harsher rhetorical tone, especially in attacking "red radicalism".
After the antis adjusted smoothly to enfranchisement and became active in party affairs, especially in the Republican Party. The Constitution required 34 states three-fourths of the 45 states in to ratify an amendment, and unless the rest of the country was unanimous there had to be support from the 11 ex-Confederate states. Three more western territories became states by , helping the suffragist cause; they now needed 36 states out of In the end Tennessee provided the critical 36th state. There was little or no suffrage activity in the region until the late nineteenth century.
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Kraditor identifies four distinctly Southern characteristics that were in play: Mildred Rutherford, president of the Georgia United Daughters of the Confederacy and a leaders of the National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage made clear the opposition of elite white women to suffrage in a speech to the state legislature:. The women who are working for this measure are striking at the principle for which their fathers fought during the Civil War. Woman's suffrage comes from the North and the West and from women who do not believe in state's rights and who wish to see negro women using the ballot.
I do not believe the state of Georgia has sunk so low that her good men can not legislate for women. If this time ever comes then it will be time for women to claim the ballot. Elna Green points out that, "Suffrage rhetoric claimed that enfranchised women would outlaw child labor, pass minimum-wage and maximum-hours laws for women workers, and establish health and safety standards for factory workers. Henry Blackwell , an officer of the AWSA before the merger and a prominent figure in the movement afterwards, urged the suffrage movement to follow a strategy of convincing southern political leaders that they could ensure white supremacy in their region without violating the Fifteenth Amendment by enfranchising educated women, who would predominantly be white.
Shortly after Blackwell presented his proposal to the Mississippi delegation to the U. Congress, his plan was given serious consideration by the Mississippi Constitutional Convention of , whose main purpose was to find legal ways of further curtailing the political power of African Americans. Although the convention adopted other measures instead, the fact that Blackwell's ideas were taken seriously drew the interest of many suffragists.
Clay was one of several southern NAWSA members who opposed the idea of a national women's suffrage amendment on the grounds that it would impinge on states' rights. A generation later Clay campaigned against the pending national amendment during the final battle for its ratification. Amid predictions by some proponents of this strategy that the South would lead the way in the enfranchisement of women, suffrage organizations were established throughout the region.
Anthony, Catt and Blackwell campaigned for suffrage in the South in , with the latter two calling for suffrage only for educated women. With Anthony's reluctant cooperation, the NAWSA maneuvered to accommodate the politics of white supremacy in that region. Anthony asked her old friend Frederick Douglass, a former slave, not to attend the NAWSA convention in Atlanta in , the first to be held in a southern city. Black NAWSA members were excluded from convention in the southern city of New Orleans, which marked the peak of this strategy's influence.
The leaders of the Southern movement were privileged upper-class belles with a strong position in high society and in church affairs. They tried to use their upscale connections to convince powerful men that suffrage was a good idea to purify society. They also argued that giving white women the vote would more than counterbalance giving the vote to the smaller number of black women.
The NAWSA leadership afterwards said it would not adopt policies that "advocated the exclusion of any race or class from the right of suffrage. At the suffrage march on Washington, Ida B. Wells-Barnett , a leader in the African American community, was asked to march in an all-black contingent to avoid upsetting white southern marchers. When the march got underway, however, she slipped into the ranks of the contingent from Illinois, her home state, and completed the march in the company of white supporters.
The concept of the New Woman emerged in the late nineteenth century to characterize the increasingly independent activity of women, especially the younger generation. The move from households to public spaces was expressed in many ways. In the late s, riding bicycles was a newly popular activity that increased women's mobility even as it signaled rejection of traditional teachings about women's weakness and fragility.
Anthony said bicycles had "done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world". Activists campaigned for suffrage in ways that were still considered by many to be "unladylike," such as marching in parades and giving street corner speeches on soap boxes. In New York in , suffragists organized a twelve-day, mile "Hike to Albany" to deliver suffrage petitions to the new governor. In the suffragist "Army of the Hudson" marched miles from New York to Washington in sixteen days, gaining national publicity. Largely through Park's efforts, similar groups were organized on campuses in 30 states, leading to the formation of the National College Equal Suffrage League in The dramatic tactics of the militant wing of the British suffrage movement began to influence the movement in the U.
In she founded the Equality League of Self-Supporting Women, later called the Women's Political Union, whose membership was based on working women, both professional and industrial. The Equality League initiated the practice of holding suffrage parades and organized the first open air suffrage rallies in thirty years. Work toward a national suffrage amendment had been sharply curtailed in favor of state suffrage campaigns after the two rival suffrage organizations merged in to form the NAWSA.
Interest in a national suffrage amendment was revived primarily by Alice Paul. Paul had been jailed there and had endured forced feedings after going on a hunger strike. In January she arrived in Washington as chair of the Congressional Committee of the NAWSA, charged with reviving the drive for a constitutional amendment that would enfranchise women. She and her coworker Lucy Burns organized a suffrage parade in Washington on the day before Woodrow Wilson 's inauguration as president.
Opponents of the march turned the event into a near riot, which ended only when a cavalry unit of the army was brought in to restore order. Public outrage over the incident, which cost the chief of police his job, brought publicity to the movement and gave it fresh momentum. Anthony Amendment,"  a name that was widely adopted. Paul argued that because the Democrats would not act to enfranchise women even though they controlled the presidency and both houses of Congress, the suffrage movement should work for the defeat of all Democratic candidates regardless of an individual candidate's position on suffrage.
She and Burns formed a separate lobbying group called the Congressional Union to act on this approach. Strongly disagreeing, the NAWSA in withdrew support from Paul's group and continued its practice of supporting any candidate who supported suffrage, regardless of political party. The NAWSA burnished its image of respectability and engaged in highly organized lobbying at both the national and state levels. The smaller NWP also engaged in lobbying but became increasingly known for activities that were dramatic and confrontational, most often in the national capital.
The NWP continued to hold watchfires even as the war began, drawing criticism from the public and even other suffrage groups for being unpatriotic. Stanton and Anthony launched a sixteen-page weekly newspaper called The Revolution in It focused primarily on women's rights, especially suffrage, but it also covered politics, the labor movement and other topics. Its energetic and broad-ranging style gave it a lasting influence, but its debts mounted when it did not receive the funding they had expected, and they had to transfer the paper to other hands after only twenty-nine months.
In , shortly after the formation of the AWSA, Lucy Stone launched an eight-page weekly newspaper called the Woman's Journal to advocate for women's rights, especially suffrage. Better financed and less radical than The Revolution , it had a much longer life. By the s it had become an unofficial voice of the suffrage movement as a whole. Editor of the eight-page weekly was Rheta Childe Dorr , an experienced journalist. New Zealand enfranchised women in , the first country to do so on a nationwide basis. Some territories, like Washington, Utah, and Wyoming, allowed women to vote before they became states.
The reform campaigns of the Progressive Era strengthened the suffrage movement. Beginning around , this broad movement began at the grassroots level with such goals as combating corruption in government, eliminating child labor, and protecting workers and consumers. Many of its participants saw women's suffrage as yet another progressive goal, and they believed that the addition of women to the electorate would help their movement achieve its other goals. In the Progressive Party , formed by Theodore Roosevelt , endorsed women's suffrage.
By suffrage for women had become a major national issue, and the NAWSA had become the nation's largest voluntary organization, with two million members.
Votes and More for Women - Suffrage and After in Connecticut (Paperback)
It authorized the executive board to specify a plan of work toward this goal for each state and to take over that work if the state organization refused to comply. Frank Miriam Leslie to be used for the women's suffrage movement. Catt formed the Leslie Woman Suffrage Commission to dispense the funds, most of which supported the activities of the NAWSA at a crucial time for the suffrage movement. The entry of the U. To replace men who had gone into the military, women moved into workplaces that did not traditionally hire women, such as steel mills and oil refineries.
The NWP, by contrast, took no steps to cooperate with the war effort. In January the NWP stationed pickets at the White House, which had never before been picketed, with banners demanding women's suffrage. Twenty million American women are denied the right to vote. President Wilson is the chief opponent of their national enfranchisement". Some of the onlookers reacted violently, tearing the banners from the picketers' hands. The police, whose actions had previously been restrained, began arresting the picketers for blocking the sidewalk.
Eventually over were arrested, about half of whom were sent to prison. When she and other suffragist prisoners began a hunger strike, prison authorities force-fed them. The negative publicity created by this harsh practice increased the pressure on the administration, which capitulated and released all the prisoners.
In November a referendum to enfranchise women in New York - at that time the most populous state in the country - passed by a substantial margin. The war served as a catalyst for suffrage extension in several countries, with women gaining the vote after years of campaigning partly in recognition of their support for the war effort, which further increased the pressure for suffrage in the U. World War I had a profound impact on woman suffrage across the belligerents. Women played a major role on the home fronts and many countries recognized their sacrifices with the vote during or shortly after the war, including the U.
France almost did so but stopped short. On January 12, , a suffrage bill was brought before the House of Representatives but was defeated by a vote of to , Democrats against, Republicans for, Progressives for. When another bill was brought before the House in January, , Wilson made a strong and widely published appeal to the House to pass the bill.
The Amendment passed by two-thirds of the House, with only one vote to spare. The vote was then carried into the Senate. Again President Wilson made an appeal, but on September 30, , the amendment fell two votes short of the two-thirds necessary for passage, Republicans for, Democrats for. There was considerable anxiety among politicians of both parties to have the amendment passed and made effective before the general elections of , so the President called a special session of Congress, and a bill, introducing the amendment, was brought before the House again.
On May 21, , it was passed, to 89, Republicans for, Democrats for, Union Labor for, Prohibitionist for ,  42 votes more than necessary being obtained. On June 4, , it was brought the Senate, and after a long discussion it was passed, with 56 ayes and 25 nays Republicans for, Democrats for. Other states followed suit at a regular pace, until the amendment had been ratified by 35 of the necessary 36 state legislatures. After Washington on March 22, , ratification languished for months.
Finally, on August 18, , Tennessee narrowly ratified the Nineteenth Amendment , making it the law throughout the United States. Three other states, Connecticut, Vermont and Delaware, passed the amendment by They were eventually followed by others in the south. Nearly twenty years later Maryland ratified the amendment in After another ten years, in , Virginia ratified the Nineteenth Amendment, followed by Alabama in Mississippi did not ratify the Nineteenth Amendment until , sixty four years after the law was enacted nationally.
Politicians responded to the newly enlarged electorate by emphasizing issues of special interest to women, especially prohibition, child health, public schools, and world peace. The main surge of women voting came in , when the big-city machines realized they needed the support of women to elect Al Smith , while rural drys mobilized women to support Prohibition and vote for Republican Herbert Hoover.
Catholic women were reluctant to vote in the early s, but they registered in very large numbers for the election—the first in which Catholicism was a major issue. Overall, the women's rights movement declined noticeably during the s. Although restricting access to the polls because of sex was made unconstitutional in , women did not turn out to the polls in the same numbers as men until From until the present, women have voted in elections in at least the same percentage as have men, and often more.
This difference in voting turnout and preferences between men and women is known as the voting gender gap. The voting gender gap has impacted political elections and, consequently, the way candidates campaign for office. The presence of women in Congress has gradually increased since , with an especially steady increase from 23 female members to the present 97 female members. The th Congress, serving from to , includes a record 20 female senators and 77 female representatives. Immediately following the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, many legislators feared a powerful women's bloc would emerge as a result of female enfranchisement.
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The Sheppard-Towner Act of , which expanded maternity care during the s, was one of the first laws passed appealing to the female vote. A paper by John Lott and Lawrence W. Kenny, published by the Journal of Political Economy , found that women generally voted along more liberal political philosophies than men. The paper concluded that women's voting appeared to be more risk-averse than men and favored candidates or policies that supported wealth transfer , social insurance , progressive taxation , and larger government.
We also find improvements in employment outcomes among this group. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books.
Women's suffrage in states of the United States. School, bond, or tax suffrage. Municipal suffrage in some cities. Primary suffrage in some cities. Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. During that time they were forced to conduct fifty-six campaigns of referenda to male voters; campaigns to get Legislatures to submit suffrage amendments to voters; 47 campaigns to get State constitutional conventions to write woman suffrage into State constitutions; campaigns to get State party conventions to include woman suffrage planks; 30 campaigns to get presidential party conventions to adopt woman suffrage planks in party platforms, and 19 campaigns with 19 successive Congresses.
Millions of dollars were raised, mainly in small sums, and expended with economic care. Hundreds of women gave the accumulated possibilities of an entire lifetime, thousands gave years of their lives, hundreds of thousands gave constant interest and such aid as they could. Drugs in American Society: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. Address Delivered at the Unitarian Church in Uxbridge, Retrieved 25 January Flexner refers to it a pamphlet, but it has pages.
Minerva and the Muse: A Life of Margaret Fuller , p. University of Massachusetts Press. Quoted in Sherr, Lynn , Failure is Impossible: Anthony in Her Own Words , p. University of North Carolina Press, p. May condemned as "all unequal, all unrighteous—this utter annihilation, politically considered, of more than one half of the whole community. Commensurate with her capacities and obligations, are Woman's Rights Syracuse, N. Lathrop, , p. Gerrit Smith was a cousin and close friend of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Wellman says they spurred each other to develop ideas of inclusive politics and to publicly advocate voting rights for women, which Smith did before Stanton.
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Retrieved 29 July Wellman is identified as the author of this document here. The conventions also discussed a variety of other issues, including dress reform and liberalization of divorce laws. The next several conventions were organized primarily by Stone.
After the birth of her daughter in , Stone withdrew from most public activity for several years. Anthony shared responsibilities for the and conventions. Stanton was the primary organizer of the convention. For details, see Million , pp. The Right Is Ours , , p. Not for Ourselves Alone: Retrieved June 11, For "pool of talent," see Venet , p. Greeley was referring to the AERA campaign in New York State for women's suffrage and the removal of discriminatory property requirements for black voters.
The AERA held no further annual meetings and went out of existence a year later. See Harper , pp. Lucy Stone and Woman Suffrage," cited in Dudden ; p. Quoted in Dudden , p. Quoted in DuBois , p. Reproduced in Gordon , p. Blackwell January 15, Retrieved March 2, Cited in Dudden , p. That did not happen; the high point of Republican support was a non-committal reference to women's suffrage in the Republican platform.
This letter was signed by Anthony, who was requesting permission to present their views to the convention in person. The name of this article's author is here. Political theater and the popular press in nineteenth-century America Legal Questions Before the Federal Courts".
This article also points out that Supreme Court rulings did not establish the connection between citizenship and voting rights until the mid-twentieth century. Anthony's speech before the circuit court". New York University Press. Lockwood ran for president again in The Journal of Politics: History, Encyclopedia, Reference Book , , p.
University of Tennessee Press. The question of expatriation in America prior to TR's 'Self-Evident Absurdity ' ". Hare , U. Attitudes, Training, Or Religious Views? Prohibition in New York City. American Women and the Repeal of Prohibition. Kenneally, "Catholicism and Woman Suffrage in Massachusetts. In Mankiller, Wilma P. The Reader's Companion to U.
Elizabeth Taylor, "A short history of the woman suffrage movement in Tennessee. New Women of the New South: Kirkley, "'This Work is God's Cause': Religion in the Southern Woman Suffrage Movement, — The New York Times.