Palgrave Macmillan , , 57 — 78 ; as well as the various articles in von der Goltz , Anna , ed.
Politisierungs- und Mobilisierungsprozesse zwischen rechter Mitte und extremer Rechter in Italien und der Bundesrepublik — Bielefeld: For an in-depth study of the League of Academic Freedom, an important conservative countermovement initiated by university professors that had particularly strong roots in West Berlin, see Wehrs , Nikolai , Der Protest der Professoren: Wallstein , esp. Zweitausendeins , , This tendency has also left some traces in more recent scholarly accounts; see, e.
Berg , , Junge Union, Jungsozialisten und Jungdemokraten — Wiesbaden: A History of Berlin London: Basic Books , , Rudi Dutschke estimated that — people were involved in SDS in the city, but that only fifteen to twenty people were truly active. Rowohlt , , 42 — DVA , , A Political History Bloomington: Indiana University Press , , , Wallstein , , 29 — Oral History and the Art of Dialogue Madison: Cornell University Press , East Germany and the Frontiers of Power Oxford: Oxford University Press , , chap.
Was waren die Folgen? Duke University Press , , 85 — Conservatism in Western Europe and the United States , ed. Cambridge University Press, forthcoming. Geppert , Dominik Oxford: Oxford University Press , , — Franz Steiner , , — Cambridge University Press , Wilhelm Fink , , Tent, The Free University , However, Georg felt unobliged by any formal agreements made between his father and the Admiralty, and published his own description of the voyage, based on the journals kept by both Forsters.
The marriage was not a success and two years later, unhappy with both domestic and academic life in Vilnius, Georg agreed to join a planned Russian expedition to the Pacific. When the expediton was abandoned he accepted the position of Librarian at the University of Mainz. Georg seems to have accepted this relationship and continued his friendship with Huber. In the aftermath of the Storming of the Bastille, these were matters of great concern. Like many German intellectuals, Georg welcomed the French Revolution. When French troops occupied Mainz in he joined the newly-founded Jacobin Club along with Huber, and was among the founders of the short-lived Mainz Republic and an editor of the revolutionary newspaper Die neue Mainzer Zeitung.
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First issue of Die neue Mainzer Zeitung , 1 January Facsimile edition; Nendeln, P. By the time the Mainz Republic fell in July , Forster was in Paris where he witnessed the early months of the Terror but, unlike many early supporters of the Revolution, refused to denounce the violent turn that it had taken. He remained in Paris until his death in January , a victim not of the Terror but of a sudden illness.
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Later commentators tended to be more interested in his political views — whether to praise or condemn them — than his scientific work. On Monday 2 July author and biographer A. Captain Cook , Germanic , Germany , Printed books. Georg Forster , Johann Reinhold Forster. In the German pacifist Ernst Friedrich published the first edition of one of the most powerful anti-war books of the 20th century.
Friedrich came from a large working-class family — one of 13 children. As a conscientious objector he spent most of the war first in an asylum and later in prison. In the s he became active in both socialist and anti-militarist groups, and Krieg dem Kriege reflects both tendencies.
A collection of war toys with an appeal to parents not to give them to children. The pictures that follow are accompanied by sometimes ironic captions: Other juxtapositions place the comforts enjoyed by officers and royalty against the suffering of ordinary soldiers, or show how the higher ranks are commemorated with taller or grander memorials than the lower, maintaining class distinctions even in death.
The devastation wrought on landscapes and towns is also shown. But most images stand alone with straightforward captions, showing the terrible reality of mass slaughter on a scale never before seen. Some of the most famous show severely mutilated soldiers — most notably a man with the whole lower half of his face destroyed — and maimed veterans back at menial work or begging for money. Friedrich seldom defines the wounded or dead in these pictures by nationality, forcing the reader to see them all as fellow-humans rather than compatriots, allies or enemies.
A wounded ex-soldier at work. The opposite page shows an aristocrat enjoying a post-war yachting holiday. Like the book, the museum sought to illustrate the true horrors of war and to encourage pacifist and antimilitarist education. Friedrich continued to campaign against war and for greater social justice, but even in the supposedly tolerant era of the Weimar Republic his publications were frequently banned and he was jailed for his political activities in He and the museum were early targets for the burgeoning Nazi movement; once the Nazi were in power, Friedrich was swiftly arrested, the museum was destroyed and the building was turned into an SA clubhouse.
On his release, Friedrich left Germany. In he was able to reopen the museum in Brussels, but it was once again destroyed when Belgium fell to the Germans in After some months of internment in France, Friedrich escaped and joined the French resistance. Friedrich remained in France after the Second World War. However, his work lives on. The museum continues to highlight the brutality of war, and has also reissued both Krieg dem Kriege and Vom Friedens-Museum — zur Hitler-Kaserne. Both museum and books remain as a worthy tribute to a man who devoted his life to the cause of peace.
This brought to my mind associations with regions that I am very familiar with and that are dear to me. The mention of Hartzwald and wild men made me smile immediately: I am from the Harz Mountains in the north of Germany; and in the forests there is a little town by the name of Wildemann. Here I recall several bemusing conversations with colleagues about the name of my home region, all based on the mutual misunderstanding of the geography and word play: Both mountain ranges, the Hartzwald in Bohemia, and the Harz in Lower Saxony, in central Germany, between the rivers Weser and Elbe, are indeed similar medium range mountains, of similar geological age.
They are covered in forests, with pine trees and other conifers being the predominant trees. In the case of Wildemann the place name points more to the tales and legends of the local mining community, and the imaginary names the local miners would give to their settlements and mine shafts. Wildemann and district with a plan of the neighbouring mine. The tale describes him as a tall man, a giant, who also had a companion, a giant lady, and, in defence, was swinging a tall fir tree, as his weapon. The miners tried to capture him at have him questioned by the Earl in Brunswick, but the wild man died in transport.
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Along the river banks, where they had first seen him, a rich lode of ore was then discovered. The Harz in North Germany was location of a rich mining industry, with gold and silver mining, and later, ore mining active from , one of the richest and longest mining traditions in Europe. Ortsplan von Grund u. Wildemann is towards the top right-hand of the map.
How gold and silver were first discovered in the Harz Mountains is worth telling — and then there is yet another wild man with a realm in a kingdom of mountains and pine forests, back in Bohemia: Marie Kutschmann, Im Zauberbann des Harzgebirges: Germanic , Germany , Popular culture. Hartzwald , Harz , Lower Saxony , Wildemann.
If we are to believe the legends, to be a prominent figure in the development of Greek drama is to be almost guaranteed a sticky end; Sophocles was said to have choked on a grape, Aeschylus to have been hit on the head by a tortoise dropped by an eagle, and Euripides to have been attacked by a pack of hounds. The premature death of Costantinos Chatzopoulos was less dramatic but no less unfortunate for the modern Greek theatre. In , he was returning with his family from Greece to Munich, where they had lived for several years, to collect the possessions which they had left behind on their precipitate departure in While travelling on the Montenegro, an Italian steamer, he was suddenly overcome by a violent attack of food poisoning and died shortly afterwards.
When Chatzopoulos was born on 11 May , Greece was still a poor and culturally backward country, cut off from the rest of Europe for linguistic and historical reasons. When Athens was declared the capital in it had only 10, inhabitants; as late as the illiteracy rate was Costantinos did his military service in the Balkans, studied law at the University of Athens, and practised this profession briefly before an inheritance enabled him to devote himself to writing. He had studied German in Athens with the classicist Karl Dieterich, and in he made his first visit to Germany, wishing to improve his knowledge of the language in order to read German classics in the original.
Emerging from the narrow and constricting atmosphere of Greece, Chatzopoulos tended to view Wilhelmine Germany through rose-tinted spectacles, going so far as to describe it as a haven of personal freedom. The first permanent theatre in Athens had been established in , but the profession of director was slow to develop. They also spent time in Berlin, and only left Germany on the outbreak of war in When Grubitz removes the floor, the typewriter is gone—Wiesler having removed it before the search team arrived.
Unaware of this, Sieland runs to the street and commits suicide by stepping into the path of a truck. Grubitz informs Wiesler that the investigation is over, his career is over, and his remaining 20 years with the agency will be in Department M, a dead-end position for disgraced agents. On November 9, , Wiesler is steam-opening letters when a co-worker tells him about the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Wiesler leaves the office, inspiring his co-workers to do the same. Two years later, Hempf and Dreyman meet while attending a performance of Dreyman's play. Dreyman asks the former minister why he had never been monitored. Hempf tells him that he had been under full surveillance in Dreyman searches his apartment and finds the listening devices. At the Stasi Records Agency , Dreyman reviews the files kept while he was under surveillance.
He reads that Sieland was released just before the second search and could not have removed the typewriter. He is at first confused by the false and contradictory information regarding his activities, but when he reaches the final report, he sees a fingerprint in red ink. Dreyman searches for Wiesler, who now has a menial job. Unsure of what to say to him, he decides not to approach him.
Two years later, Wiesler passes a bookstore window display promoting Dreyman's new novel, Sonate vom Guten Menschen. Deeply moved, Wiesler buys the book.
When the sales clerk asks if he wants it gift-wrapped, he responds, "No. This is for me. Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck 's parents were both from East Germany originally they were from further east ; the von Donnersmarcks belonged to Silesian nobility but the region was transferred to Poland from Germany after World War II. He has said that, on visits there as a child before the Berlin Wall fell, he could sense the fear they had as subjects of the state. He said the idea for the film came to him when he was trying to come up with a scenario for a film class.
He was listening to music and recalled Maxim Gorky 's saying that Lenin 's favorite piece of music was Beethoven 's Appassionata. Gorky recounted a discussion with Lenin:. But I can't listen to music often, it affects my nerves, it makes me want to say sweet nothings and pat the heads of people who, living in a filthy hell, can create such beauty. But today we mustn't pat anyone on the head or we'll get our hand bitten off; we've got to hit them on the heads, hit them without mercy, though in the ideal we are against doing any violence to people.
Hm-hm—it's a hellishly difficult office! Donnersmarck told a New York Times reporter: I sat down and in a couple of hours had written the treatment. Knabe objected to "making the Stasi man into a hero" and tried to persuade Donnersmarck to change the film. Donnersmarck cited Schindler's List as an example of such a plot development being possible. There was a Schindler. There was no Wiesler.
Other ’68ers in West Berlin: Christian Democratic Students and the Cold War City
The film was received with widespread acclaim. Corliss praised the film as a "poignant, unsettling thriller. Film critic Roger Ebert gave the film four stars, describing it as "a powerful but quiet film, constructed of hidden thoughts and secret desires.
Scott, reviewing the film in The New York Times , wrote that Lives is well-plotted, and added, "The suspense comes not only from the structure and pacing of the scenes, but also, more deeply, from the sense that even in an oppressive society, individuals are burdened with free will. You never know, from one moment to the next, what course any of the characters will choose. American commentator John Podhoretz called the film "one of the greatest movies ever made, and certainly the best film of this decade.
Several critics pointed to the film's subtle building up of details as one of its prime strengths. The film is built "on layers of emotional texture", wrote Stephanie Zacharek in Salon online magazine. Perhaps I was just won over sentimentally, because of the seductive mass of details which look like they were lifted from my own past between the total ban of my work in and denaturalisation in She claims that it was not possible for a Stasi operative to have hidden information from superiors because Stasi employees themselves were watched and almost always operated in teams.
In a BBC poll, critics voted the film the 32nd greatest since The Lives of Others also appeared on many critics' lists of the ten best films of The Europe List , the largest survey on European culture established that the top three films in European culture are. In September , 43 members of the Israeli elite clandestine Unit wrote a letter to Israel's prime minister and army chief, refusing further service and claiming Israel made "no distinction between Palestinians who are and are not involved in violence" and that information collected "harms innocent people.
The Lives of Others has been referred to in political protests following the mass surveillance disclosures.
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My knowledge of the Stasi is not very extensive, but it's largely from a movie called The Lives of Others , which won the Oscar for "Best Foreign Film" some years ago. Everybody should get that now. It should be reissued now. But I'd like to see it dubbed so it had a wider audience. What that shows is what life can be with a government that knew as much as the Stasi did then. But if they know—and one thing they can do with that information right now—is to turn people into informants, so that the government has not only the information that people say on electronic devices, they have what they say in the bedroom, because their wife or their whoever—spouse—is an informant.
As happened in the movie. That is what did happen in East Germany. And if we were to get that here, and there's the infrastructure for it right now, we will become a democratic republic in the same sense as the East German Democratic Republic. Film critic and historian Carrie Rickey believes that The Lives of Others was one of two movies that influenced Snowden's actions, the other being the Francis Ford Coppola film The Conversation , both being about wiretappers troubled by guilt.
I would recommend these films to anyone interested in great movies that touch on the issues raised by L'Affaire Snowden. French President Nicolas Sarkozy gave an interview in Le Figaro expressing his outrage over being the victim of surveillance himself. He drew a direct comparison to Henckel von Donnersmarck's film: It is not the case of some dictator acting against his political opponents. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.