Can you post the compiler errors you get? This function or variable may be unsafe. See online help for details. Just remove line You initialize root to NULL a few lines further anyway, and you could also consider doing the initialization the moment root is declared: Can you show the new list of errors? I have made it down to three errors, and I am still not sure what the issue is I am going to post the code again so that you can look I will also post the errors below: Experts Exchange Solution brought to you by Your issues matter to us.
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What kind of crash? What iteration of the loop if any? Note that you didn't initialize root to NULL - you really have to do that, since your insert function relies on it being root. If that's the case, then do not hesitate to ask for clarification where needed. It's more than this solution. Get answers and train to solve all your tech problems - anytime, anywhere.
Try it for free Edge Out The Competition for your dream job with proven skills and certifications. Get started today Stand Out as the employee with proven skills. Start learning today for free Move Your Career Forward with certification training in the latest technologies. Start your trial today. C From novice to tech pro — start learning today. The jury, perplexed by contradictory evidence, brought in a verdict of not guilty. Justifiable homicide is that which is committed with the intention to kill, or to do a grievous bodily injury, but under circumstances which the law holds sufficient to oxculpate the person who commits it.
The Scottish Act, 1H61, c. It enacts " that the cases of homicide alter mentioned, viz. Hardly any others exist in which homicide can be relied on as absolutely justifiable at this day. The general rule is certain, that an assault with the fists or a stick will not justify the use of lethal weapons.
Inthecase of " Mitchell v. Burnett," May , the deceased, after the grossest, verbal abuse, had collared the prisoner, driven him over a chest, dashed his head against the wall, antl struck him on the head to the effusion of his blood, upon which the latter secretly drew a knife from his pocket and stabbed the aggressor in the belly. He was found guilty of murder, the court having only sustained it relevant to exculpate, " that the defunct was killed by the pannel in the just and lawful defence of his own life. This statute is held to be declaratory of the common law. ON the 23th anil 26th ult.
The pigeons, real blue rocks, were procured from England. A fine level piece of ground was chosen outside the Fort, several tents were pitched, and the traps, three in number, five yards apart from each other, were placed a short distanec in front of the stakeholder's tent. A square of yards was outlined with red and yellow flags. Within this inclosure it was required by tho rules of shooting that every bird should fall and be picked up, or was deemed a lost shot. From 19 to 22 yards were arranged to bo the shooting distances— the nearest to the traps for guns of small calibre; the most distant for guns above No.
Charges of shot limited 1J ounce. The matches were shot in the rotation of the number given below, each member firing at one bird in succession ; the stake- holder marking them against their names 1 or 0, to denote a hit or miss. In the first match, it will be seen that there were five ties.
In shooting them off, Colonel Taylor killed three birds in succession, antl was declared winner, with great cheering. The second stake of Hope Johnstone being third, saved his stake. In the second match, the stakes were divided by Keith Stewart Mackenzie, Esq. The sport on the second day was opened with a sweepstakes by seventeen competitors. In shooting off the ties, seven in number, Seaforth killed four birds in succession— thus gaining the match.
Rattray came in second, by bringing down three pigeons out of four shots. In the next and last match there were three ties to shoot off, by Captain Gore, Mr. One bird had fallen to each, when it was discovered that the stock of pigeons was exhausted. This having put an end to the shooting, an equal division of the stakes was agreed on. Thus terminated an exciting descrip- tion of sport but little practised in the North, although it forms one of the standard tests of good shooting.
The weather was cold and windy, with frequent showers; and, considering that hardly any of the gentlemen were practised at pigeon- shooting, the matches were well and keenly contested. A great number of spectators witnessed the shooting, and were delighted at the novelty of the scene.
Such of the pigeons as escaped being shot at the traps had to run the gauntlet of a number of guns stationed outside the bounds. The armourer mounted the barrel of an old brown Bess for the occasion, and fired away amid peals of laughter and cheering from his comrades. Lieutenant Eddington was stakeholder and marker, to the entire satisfaction of all parties, and Mr. Snowie, gunmaker, in like manner, acted as umpire. Colonel Taylor, we are glad to learn, has since pre- sented Mr. Snowie with an elegant silver snuff- box, inscribed to iiim from the gentlemen who shot the match— a compliment well- deserved, and to which many others would gladly have contributed.
Seaforth 1 1 1 1 M'Barnett I 1 1 0 Campbell 0 0 0 0 Seaforth l l Frascr 1 1 Grant 0 1 M'Barnett 0 1 Hicks 0 I Kattray 1 1 Sweeny l l Gore 1 1 Seaforth 1 1 Gore I 1 Sir James Mackenzie, Bart. Fraser 1 1 Sweeny 0 1 Stott 0 1 M'Barnett 1 I Blennerhasset 0 0 M'Barnett 0 0 0 Seaforth 0 1 I Sir James Mackenzie, Bart- 1 0 Sweeny 0 0 Capt Gore 1 0 Bowden immediately, through his solicitor, appealed against the de- cision of the magistrates; and on Tuesday, at the Quarter Sessions for the county of Bucks at Ayles- bury, before Lord Carington, chairman, and a full bench of magistrates, the appeal was heard.
After the case had been gone into, his Lordship said it was the unanimous opinion of the magistrates that the conviction should be quashed. The conviction was quashed accordingly. David Murray, brother of the Earl of Mansfield, brought down with a rifle ball, a most magnificent wild swan, on a Loch at Innernvte, in the neighbourhood of S anley.
The bird weighed 2' 21b. Buchanan, whilst residing at an hotel in Washington during the early part of February, was seized with severe illness, which also attacked several other residents in the house, one of whom has since died. It is only by assiduous care that the President lins at length been restored to health. On investigating the cause of the attack, it was found that the drinking water had been supplied by a tank at the top of the house, in which were found the bodies of a large number of rats. To free the hotel from these intruders, arsenic had been placed in their best- known places of resort.
The thirst produced by the action of the poison led them to the cistern, and their eagerness to drink, combined with the deadly ac- tion of the arsenic, had caused them to topple over into the cistern, thus doubly poisoning its contents. As this mode of getting rid of these vermin is rather common in this country, and is made the most ordinary excuse for obtaining the poison from druggists, we record the above instance to show the great danger that is in- curred by the practice.
At the seat of royalty and horse- soldiere the fielders had a capital turn; scarcely a favourite won, unless under circumstances of rather peculiar ready- made luck, when such odds were laid as made it evident, even to those who were not in the secret, that the animal which Fortune had marked for her own would find some difficulty in losing. In one race three different horses were backed at evens against the field; those who were quick and clever enough to bet against them required neither Hoyle nor Cocker to tell them they had good hands.
It was, however, a very good meeting, and has pro- mises of patronage in the year to come, which cannot fail to render it a source of great attraction to the " nobility, gentry, and owners of steeple- chasers in general. These low fares arc remarkably pleasant to travellers', but we fancy the railway companies must be inclined to say with the frogs, " It is fun to you, but it is death to us.
The reasonable charges for travelling a short journey has already done good service; in several racing towns beds are not so dear " as they used to was," because the fleecees have taken a run of five or six miles to dine and sleep out of the noise and bustle of head- quarters— that they might enjoy a quiet evening after the excitement of the day, at half the price they have formerly been accustomed to pay for bad dinners, worse wine, and shake- downs unguilty of feathers.
The racing torrent is now rushing on in earnest, and we hope that the hotel and lodging- house keepers at the various places of sport will adopt the motto, laid aside too long, of " live and let live. It came on at the assizes last week, when a slight specimen of English in the vulgar tongue oozed out, and the judge stopped the case, not because the " Lancashire witches " in court did not relish it, but because his lord- ship thought it had better be left to arbitration. We are given to understand that Admiral Rous has kindly consented to act as umpire, and will hear the plaints of both sides on an early day after the Newmarket Meeting.
Thus an expose of the extraordinary language of the gentlemen of the turf will be happily avoided. We do not know what tho betting is on the result of the trial, but we hear that one of tho parties has hedged his stake; for our own parts, we shall back the lawyers to have the best of it. Some alterations have taken place in the betting- market during the week ; liberties were on Monday taken with Vedette, who appeared at one time as though he were likely to retire on a pension before the fight for The Two Thousand Guineas ; he rallied a bit in the City on Thursday, and may still be called first favourite.
Loyola was nibbled at, but not backed for money; and the supporters of big Sydney were far less sanguine than usual — perhaps they are fearful lest he should " lose start" again. Kent won his trial, having been " well in ;" and was backed in consequence. The Manchester School are always ready to lay the odds against any thing in the race: Has Kingmaker, the French- bred one, had a satisfactory spin? Apathy is the only horse engaged in this race that has appeared in public as a three- year- old; he has shown some form, and will, we think, show his indifference to the pre- tensions of any commoner, whether a native of France or England.
The Newmarket Handicap has scarcely been touched upon; we fancy old Pantomime, who was so close up in the Metro- politan, will be very near them again ; nor do we clearly see what is to beat him, unless it be the light weight. The two Riddlesworths, which in days gone by brought so much honour to the stable of Lord Jersey, have this year only eight living animals engaged in the pair of them. The Column, on Wednesday, with 17 subscribers, seems likely to fall to the lot of that nice mare, Ayacanora; and The Claret is reduced to a match between Wentworth, who was to have won the Derby, and Manganese, who could not stay ill the Ascot Cup.
The distance is rather more than two miles, but we do not think the horse can go fast enough to make the pace tell against her, so we pin our faith to Manganese. The pace at Ascot was fearful. The Port contains the names of Fazzoletto, Yellow Jack, Mary Copp, and others, but we question whether it will come to a race or not. Gilliver, a sound son of Irish Bird- catcher, has three engagements at this meeting, and is likely to pull off the trio. He may then come into the Chester Cup betting, his weight in that race being 5st. There is no great race for two- year- olds in either the Craven or Spring Meeting, although the lists of the day will doubt- lessly bring forth some Ten Sovs Sweepstakes for the juveniles.
We fancy a good Two- year- olil Stake might easily begot up. In these times of running off a straw- bed, there could be little difficulty in finding plenty of subscribers who would like to be early in the field with their young ones, and give them a spin on the T. They are engaged, and have been running, all over the country. Why should they not also be engaged at Newmarket? The course is in as fine order as bush harrowing and rolling can make it, and we hope that, as the elections have now pretty well closed, the meeting of next week will be well attended. Trainers, do not leave the receipts for your taxes at home; they were due last Monday, and you are " safe " to be asked for them.
Bring your proper colours too, and save those sovereigns which you will be fined if you make a mistake about your caps and jackets. Look at the subjoined official document, and digest it well. This includes steeple- chases. The duty is to be paid to the receiver of race- horse duty, appointed by the Commissioners of Inland Revenue, or to some person duly employed and authorised by him for that purpose, previously to the starting of any horse; and, in the event of a horse running without the duty having been paid, the owner or trainer, or other person having charge of such liorse, will be liable to a penalty of 50?.
Forms of receipts are supplied by the Commissioners of Inland Revenue to the receiver; and, on payment of the duty for each horse, one of such receipts, filled up, and signed by the receiver, will be delivered to the person who pays tho money. These receipts are always to be obtained during the usual hours of business at Messrs. Weatherby" s office, No. Such payment antl receipt will free the owner for the time being of the horse named in the receipts from any further payment of duty in respect of the said horse for the year ending 5th April next after such payment.
It is to be understood that, should a horse be prevented by any cause from running a race during the year for which the duty may have been paid, the duty will be returned— there is therefore no advantage in postponing the payment to the day of running. The name of every horse for which the duty is paid will be published in the Racing Calendar as soon as possible after such payment. This will be a sufficient notice to all whom it may concern that the horse is qualified by payment of the duty, and will prevent the necessity of producing the receipt at each place where the horse runs.
At first 6 to 1 was repeatedly laid against him, but towards the close 5 to 1, 9 to 2, and, finally, 4 to 1 were booked about him. The quotations given below will indicate the other changes in the Two Thousand " price current. Giles for the Great Northern, and 7 to 1 was laid against Skirmisher. A reported favourable trial caused Kent to be brought with increased force into The Two Thousand betting. After to had been laid, he was advanced step by step to 6 to 1. Towards the close, however, backers cried " enough," and 7 to 1 was offered without finding takers.
Loyola was nominally second favourite; even was, early in the afternoon, laid on him against Schiedam. The betting on the other events was too limited and unimportant for comment. Further changes took place in the betting upon the Great Northern Handicap. Giles receded to 5 to 1, currently offered, and it is not improbable that a point more might have been obtained at the close. Skirmisher became almost friendless, 11 to 1 being offered against him, which had the effect of bringing his stable companion, Fandango, into notice, without, however, reducing the price at which he was pre- viously quoted.
For the Two Thousand Guineas Stakes Vedette received a little patronage at 9 to 2 ; there is an obvious disposition to bet against him. We heard different offers against Kent, but the lowest price offered to be taken was to 7. Apathy seems not very firm, there being no takers of to 9 about him.
In other re- spects the following quotations will suffice: Concluded from last week. Judge and Clerk of the Scales: Horniblow made the running to the fence, alter crossing Bone- lane, going out the second time, where he blundered and unseated his rider. He was after a time remounted, and came in a long way behind Johnny Raw. Mr Howell's Himalaya G. Harrison 2 Mr H. Pauling's Candidate Basper 3 Mr H. Edward's Whalebone Oliver 4 Mr T. Won by two lengths ; 12 lengths between the second and third. Whalebone finished close up with Candidate, Mermaid was fifth; Charley and St.
Patrick got no further than the first fence, at which the first- named fell and the latter refused. Lady Grey baulked the brook going out, and at the next obstacle Pharaoh gelding cannoned against Himalaya and fell. Land's Pioneer, lOst 41b Mr. Edwards 2 Major Jennings's Aldershott, 11st owner 0 No betting.
Aldershott refused at the brook fence on going out; Ganymede then went on with the lead, and won by nearly a distance. Land's Odiham, by Pantaloon, 11st 71b, B. Barnett's Diana, 10st61b T. Archer 0 Mr G. Barry's The Wizard, lOst b G. On taking the first obstacle— a hedge and ditch leap— Minos made a slight mistake, and the next moment Hopeless Star cannoned against him, and he fell; The Wizard, in following, slipped into the ditch the taking off side, and likewise came to earth. The Wizard, although remounted, was not perse- vered with; but Minos struggled on, encrusted with mud, a long way in the rear; Waterloo showed in front until nearing the turning flag up the hill to the left, where he dropped away beaten, and was soon afterwards pulled up ; Odiham then took the lead, which he held on, again passing the Stand, Janus lying second, Hopeless Star third, and Diana fourth— all tolerably Avell together— Minos, still per- severing, a full distance behind them.
At the lane fence, Hopeless Star fell, and Diana took third place; Odlhain gradually increased his lead after rounding the far turning flag, and won as he pleased by six lengths; bad third; Minos was stopped a long way from home. Edwards 2 Mr Standish's Gentle, list 21b ' Land's Theodine, 11st 71b B. Oliver 0 Mr C. Talbot's The Hack, 11st 21b Mr.
Ivanhoe, Nimrod, and King Dan fell the first time round, and the latter got loose and galloped some distance with the leading horses. The four ran i:: He, however, instantly righted, and went on gamely in pursuit of British Yeoman, the quartet being again all together as they passed the back of the Stand.
Here Tho Hack, who was going remarkably well, fell, and Theodine, tiring through the heavy ground, also came down, and Weston ag" in blundered. These mishaps gave British Yeoman a long lead, and, clearing the final water jump without mist ike, he finished ten lengths a head of Weston. Gentle and Nebuchadnezzar were pulled up beaten a long way from lioms. THE second reunion at La Marche took place on Sun- day last, under rather more favourable auspices as regards the weather than the previous meeting.
The day was gloomy, but dry overhead, and that was a sufficient inducement to attract a large concourse of spectators to La Marche. The show of carriages was immense; the receipts from that source realising upwards o 20,f. We are glad the lessees have made such a good begin- ning; and, as there is every prospect of steeple- chasing becoming very popular in France, several new meetings being announced, as well as a new patron or two to the sport, we hope they will at once see the necessity of. They might as well stick up a single hurdle, and expect all the horses to jump it, without running out, as expect them to go over what they have now to do, as they are not wide enough to allow a lot of horses to clear them, especially as there are no wings to pre- vent their bolting.
They surely can have no diffi- culty in employing a proper man who understands the thing, and who has been accustomed to ride over a country, to superintend the erection of the fences, as they are all artificial ones, which will entitle their races to come under the denomination of steeple- chases, which at present they do not, being composed of little paltry timber- jumps, hurdles, and a little made- fence or two, about three feet high.
We are sadly afraid they have hitherto thought about nothing but what they are to pocket if the weather happens to be fine; for, as all foot- people pay three francs entrance- money, and carriages and horses something enormous, they naturally look forward with great anxiety for a fine day, as the steeple- chases are given merely as a speculation— and, as it so well succeeded on this occasion, we hope and trust by the next meeting to Snd our suggestions carried out.
Another thing that we must particularly call their attention to is the absolute necessity of having the horses properly handicapped; for, on looking over tlie weights for the race on the 19th, we are astonished to see Good- lad, of selling- plate notoriety on both sides of the Channel who was beat twenty lengths the other day by Kilkenny Boy , actually made to give 41b to Sting and 81b to Flying Buck.
In the former han- dicap Goodlad was made to give the Buck 31b. As neither horse ran, we are at a loss to understand why a further difference of 51b should be made between them on this occasion. The merest tyro in racing must at once perceive that it is wrong ; and how the liandicapper could have made such a glaring mistake we are at a loss to comprehend. The races commenced with the Selling Plate, which was delayed some time in the hope that their Imperial Majesties would honour the meeting with their pre- sence ; but all were doomed to disappointment in that respect.
Five started, including Casse Cou, who damaged his chance by the slovenly manner in which he jumped the hank. It was won cleverly by Railway, who immediately found seven claimants, M. Isidore Moyse being declared the highest bidder at 4' f.
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He goes into I. Gibson's stable, and we hope the speculation will prove a good one. Considerable delay occurred before the next race, for there appears to be some fatality attached to this meeting, as it never passes off without a wrangle, or something of the sort. A discussion of considerable length took place as to whether Jean du Quesne was to carry the 81b extra for winning at Doncaster, the weights having been published at eight o'clock in the morning before the race was run.
Mackenzie Grieves, the steward, not wishing to decide this question, got M. Lupin to assist him, when they immediately decided that he ought not to carry it; but, this not giving satisfaction, Count Legrange and Count Guy de Montecot were requested to help Messrs. Lupin and Grieves to reconsider their ver- dict.
However, the result was tho same— the com- mittee, composed of the four gentlemen named, de- ciding that, " as most of the handicaps in France were published in the afternoen, they thought that Jean du Quesne ought to have the benefit of it, and not carry the extra weight, as he had won the race the day the weight were published.
We have no doubt the 11th of March was fixed for the declaration of the weights in order that they might go forth to the public in the columns of the Sport. Therefore the extraordinary decision of the gentlemen appointed to decide it must astonish every one; for, having occasionally been in the liabit the Jockey Club we mean of publishing their handicaps sometimes as late as eleven o'clock iu the evening, it is ridiculous to make it a precedent on this occasion.
We must remind them that when their handicaps have been published at that late hour, it has only been for the convenience of the Jofckey Club, or any one who chose to be at the trouble to fetch it. But' we maintain those handicaps were more private ones than public ones, and were made at that late hour to suit the members of the club, who hold their meetings very late— in fact, the BettingClub hold theirreunions between ten and twelve o'clock at night; and, as this was not a Jockey Club affair, they ought to have confined themselves to the strict letter of the condi- tions.
Perhaps next time they will request the editor of the Sport, or whatever journal the weights are published in, to delay it till the evening. What we want at a place like La Marche is a steward thoroughly conversant with racing matters, who is able to give a decision promptly and correctly when required; not a man who throws his head up like a hound at fault, looking around for encourage- ment and assistance to get him out of his difficulty. One thing is certain— Englishmen will never be able to understand Frenchmen in racing matters.
There is generally some little convenient loophole to get out of a difficulty or to pervert the true meaning of the conditions of the race. A point decided one day is just as likely tho next week to be decided quite the contrary. For instance, at Croix de Beury in , Maria Day and Laura went wrong, at least half a mile farther than they ought to have gone, Maria winning, Laura second; and the French horse, tailed off an immense distance, who went the right course, claimed the race very properly, and it was awarded to him.
At La Marche, on the 15th March, all the horses, with one exception be- longing to an Englishman, went wrong; but the race was given to the French horse, the steward deciding that, as the horses went a greater distance than they would have done had they gone right, the horse who arrived first must have the stakes. They did not think so, however, when Mr. Iliggins's Maria Day won, having gone half a mile further ; and there is another thing the attention of tho French Commis- sioners ought to be called to— the ridiculous habit sometimes, as at the Croix de Beury, of having a diffe- rent finish in the run home for the second race.
Jockeys just arrived from England, as Weaver and J. Martin, were very likely to misunderstand the orders of the starter, and take the same course they had run in the previous race, which they did in this instance. But to return to our resume. This difficulty about Jean du Quesne's weight being settled, caused Franc Picard to be scratched, and the lormer immediately became first favourite at evens, and in some instances odds on him.
However, the pot boiled over, to the evident delight of the fielders. Five came to the scratch— the Dean, who made all the running, winning in a canter; Jearfdu Quesne having run very unkind throughout. He did not strike us as having done much work since Warwick; he looked remarkably well, and was too fresh, and evidently tired very soon, as he nearly fell at the second fence a bank , and actually did fall at the last bank, leaving The Dean to pursue the even tenour of his way and win as he liked.
Lady Arthur's career was soon terminated by refusing at the third fence, a little low post and rail, about two feet high, with a dry ditch on the landing side, and no wings on either side to prevent horses from bolting. Sting came to grief at the brook, which in general proves fatal to all now comers, being in fact a regular trap— horses not seeing it till they approach it, in con- sequence of its being down hill immediately after passing a sharp turn, and nine horses out of ten fall into it the first time they run.
We are sorry her rider did not get a ducking as well as the mare, as he was in a most disgusting state of intoxication ; and how his master could put him up instead of Weaver we are at a loss to understand. They put him on Kilkenny Boy, carrying b extra. He took no part in the race whatever. The next meeting will take place on the 19th ; but, judging from the handicap, we cannot do otherwise than anticipate a bad day's sport, as we do not expect to see more than three or four Btarters for it, and two or three for each of the other races.
M Faflquel's brh Railway by Nelson, 5 yrs, b to be sold for f. Plummer 1 Baron Monnecove's ch g Casse Cou, aged, b to he sold fur f.
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Lamplugli 2 Mr Kelly's ch g Torrent, aged, b f. Bell 0 Mr Reynold's b g Simple Peter, aged f. They all got safely over the brook with the exception of Simple Peter, who indulged his owner with a cold bath. Casse Cou shortly after took up the running, Torrent second, Railway third, and the three jumped the bank together; Pepitn, several lengths olf, disposed of her chance by pulling at the next fence. Casse Cou, Torrent, and Railway, jumped the brook the second time in the order indicated; Railway passed Torrent on leaving the garden, and took second place. At the bank Casse Cou nearly fell, and lost several lengths, which left Railway with the lead.
Casse Cou, how- ever, joined the two leaders in tho straight run in, when they all jumped the two flights of hurdles together. At the last fence Torrent was beaten, leaving the race to Casse Cou and Railway, which, after a smart struggle for a bit, Railway succeeded in whining easy by two lengths; Torrent was beaten four or five.
Simple Peter continued his course, but fell a second time at the brook. The winner was claimed by M. Isidore Moyse for f. Donaldson 0 Viscount A. Talon's b li Kilkenny Boy, 5 yrs, b ear b G. The Dean made the running. At the second fence on the hill Jean du Qliesnc nearly fell, thereby giving his place to Lady Arthur. After passing the chflteau, Lady Arthur ran out twice at the little post and rail, with a dry ditch on the landing side. She was got over at the third attempt, but, running out again at the next fence, she was not persevered with.
No alteration look place with the leaders, till they arrived at the brook, which The Dean and Jean du Quesne jumped together, Sting close on their heels, not seeing it, and jumping into It. She was remounted and followed the others at a respectful distance; no change taking place till arriving at the brook the second time, which Sting, not wishing for another bath, refused altogether.
The race was now left to The Dean and Jean du Quesne, till they reached the bank, both evidently very tired.
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Here Jean dn Quesne put an end to his chance by falling heavily, leaving The Dean to finish the race at his leisure. After a short delay Lainplugh remounted and finished the race, having an eye to tho second money. Value of the et'ike, Uf. On the 80th ult. On the 6th ult, Truth, a chesnut colt bv California; she will be put to Sweetmeat.
The fol- lowing mares have arrived at Mr. Phillips's paddocks, Bushbury, near Wolverhampton, to be put to Koh- i- noor: Vlgllacconl 6 3 st 11 , st lb Wantage 8 12 Jesuit S 4 Weathercock York 8 10 I'. Alembic 11 7 Absolution 10 9 I Vigliacconi! The song for example, of a thrush near London, or in any of the home counties, has little resemblance, except in tone and specific charac- ter, to that of the same bird in Devonshire, or near Exeter.
The same notes, I suppose, will all of them be detected; but they are arranged, for the most part in a different tunc, and are not sung in the same way. They are given with different values, and the singing is pitched in a different key. One great dis- tinction between the two cases is the number of gut- tural notes of which the song of a Devonshire thrush is often made up, but which near London are heard only at the end of a bar, or even much less fre- quently; while those chief notes which mainly con stitute the song of the other bird, and make it so impressive, are rarely pronounced by the Devonshire thrush.
OUR prediction that the trout in our river would soon cease to feed proved correct, though not quite so soon as we expected. The following days, too, they rose better than appearances warranted. On the 3rd, wo turned out under the conviction we should have but bad sport, the wind being " raw and gusty," the baro- meter low and beginning to rise, and everything an- nouncing rain. For upwards of half au hour we moved nothing of any size.
About noon tho sun showed himself at intervals— the clouds opening here and there and becoming much lighter. In an instant clouds of flies of all hues and sizes ap- peared on every side of us, numbers falling on the water. There were vernal specimens rejoicing in almost every barbarous denomination known to the fisherman— March browns and alder flies, blue duns and yellow duns, and even one or two members of the Coprophagi, the popular name of which would prove " unutterable to ears polite.
Our pools began to boil. Never did trout rise as they did with us on Friday last. We had only one regret, and that was, our lies were too small and too good. We by no means wished to empty the river under our windows, or, indeed, any where else, as the trout are as yet not worth taking; they neither pull hard nor fry firm. There was no way, therefore, but giving in. A heavy shower fell about one; and it was then the trout rose best. On reaching the house we visited the instru- ments, and found the barometer bad risen two- tenths and the thermometer three degrees during our ab- sence.
The impreBsion on our mind was, that a strong electrical current had been passing from the earth to the clouds ; but this is mere conjecture; and we only mention it that some learned meteorologist may favour us with his opinion on our theory. Elec- tricity will, we think, be found sooner or later to have great influence over the angler's sport. Were we to describe our Hies in fishermen's phrase- ology, we should say the tail was a " March brown," the lower dropper a " black gnat," and the upper a " yellow dun.
Badaud's friend, the Major, tlie body of crottle- coloured mohair and hare's ear, tied on a treble F. The second was made in the ordinary way, with stare's feather, bog- hare's ear, lapwing's crest, and dark red silk. The two last were tied on F. The black gnat Culex reptans appeared the favourite; but we have remarked that in brown water, such as we were fishing in, a dark fly is often pre- ferred, and that a slate- coloured insect answers better in light- coloured streams. We always rub a new fly with the thumbnail to get it into angling trim.
The lower end of the crest of the lapwing appears to us far preferable to a black hackle for imitating the legs of a fly. We say the lower end, because the point is so thin, if it be used a fly is apt to lose its legs. We are now about to take a liberty, although sorely afraid we shall be laughed at for our pains. How- ever, we cannot refrain from observing that the terms of the modern angler, as far as entomology is con- cerned, stand iu as much need of revision as did the nomenclature of the botanists and chemists of the last century.
We might even be tempted to add, that sportsmen in general make use of words that would not bear close examination, e.
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The prevailing colour of the bird is a dull brown ; and of the hundred tints assumed by the fish, in different circumstances, it would not be easy to find anything approaching to brown, save, perhaps, in one or two of the fins. The trout's prevailing hues are, we think, dark olive- green, and a sort of neutral purple, on the back ; and yellow, grey, or white on the belly. Would it not, therefore, be better to call the female of the Tetrao- te- trix, the brown hen; and style the fresh- water fish the yellow trout, in opposition to the white- bellied sea- trout?
Even the partridge—" the. Little need was there for philo- sophers and painters of inventive genius to favour us with " grisly kings" and green mantles, Chantrey's and Hoffiand's fancies—" lusus Natures" et pisea- torum w ith a vengeance. As it is in therapeutics, painting, and punctuation, so is it in the fabrication of flies.
No two doctors, even supposing they should chance to agree as to the exact name of a poor patient's disorder, will prescribe the same remedies— no two painters will employ the same colours to represent the same landscape— no two authors employ the same points; and so does it prove with the fly- makers: More than enough in the way of digression— we will now proceed with our poor hints in a practical way.
Many anglers have a prejudice against casting on their own side of a river. They are never satisfied unless the tail- flv drop within an inch or two of the opposite bank. We have seen a man operate thus when his own side was preserved and the other open to all. It is true they do allow the flies to describe the usual curve, and finally show themselves near their own bank; but it would answer better to reverse matters— commence at home, finish abroad.
The best trout often lie under the bank, both when the water is clearing after a flood and when it is low, more espe- cially if it be fringed here and there by the sword- shaped leaves of the water iris, iris paeud- acorus. Here we may perhaps be permitted to remark that the leaves and yellow flowers of this beautiful plant not only announce the trout to be in season, but they also serve to cover the bottom of a pannier and keep it clean.
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In most of our treatises on angling we are told to " fish line and far off. When it is, it answers better to station ourselves near the water, or even in it, than remain on the bank. It is for this reason that waders raise fish nearer than those who stand high on the bank. The young angler will do well to observe which side of the stream he is fish- ing forms the outer curve or flank, that is, supposing the river not perfectly straight.
That side will gene- rally prove the deeper, and the water move quicker; and, other things being the same, the fish will prin- cipally lie there. We remember observing to a close, cunning member of our profession, who verged on the variety unpo- litely termed pot- hunter, that a certain gentleman then experimenting before us threw a good line, but that he held his rod and manoeuvred his fly in a way that proved he was more at home amongst trout than salmon. If his success be any cri- terion, the plan is " anything but a bad one.
At all events, a fly, whether trout or salmon, should be well down in fho following cases— if large or gaudy; if tho piscator be elevated; and when the water is clear or the sun shining. We have remarked that when a fish misses the fly, it sometimes happens that he does not rise again until it has been cast much lower down than the place where ho showed himself. This has occurred to tis so frequently that we are disposed to think that, when a salmon fails to seize a fly, he either allows himself to bo carried down by the current below his usual station, or else that he comes from a greater distanco the first rise than he is willing to do after- wards.
Therefore our opinion is that, when the angler lias not pricked a fish, he should not give up all hope of bringing him up again before he has care- fully tried the ground some thirty yards lower down. When tho piscator knows there is a salmon in a particular part of a rapid stream, there are two modes of proceeding: In the first case the fish may miscalcu- late his distance, and miss the fly by coming up after it has floated past him ; therefore we think the second the better way to go to work. Should he rise after the fly has passed, the break in the water will scarcely bo perceptible, and leave it doubtful whether it was not a regular refusal.
A " slap of tho tail to drown the fly" occasionally startles a sleepy man, and passes for the rise of a thirty- pounder. No time for hooking a cunning old salmon like a heavy shower. Wo like to fish in gloves, for salmon at least, in cold weather, partaking of the Colonel's opinon on the subject of coarse hands. However, doe- skin isapt to get somewhat slippery after handling a salmon, and, as we have said before, wo never leave any thing— horse, dog, bird, or fish, to a deputy. A gaff- stick is very apt to slip through a scale- covered glove at the cri- tical moment of gaffing.
We remember once, during a hail- storm, when it was freezing hard, sticking the hook into a fish's tail, which fish made a dive, and carried away hook, stick, and all. Though we landed our fish with the aid of thumb and finger in the gills, we lost the best bit of steel and ash that ever left the shop of. There is an advantage attendant on making use of a dropper which we forgot to mention— experimenting with a view to discover the best colour. It is the worst policy in the world to lose time changing flies. Better try a variety at once. Should a salmon rise without being pricked, and tin; angler decide waiting a few minutes before trying again, I10 will do well to retire a few paces from from the bank, or, and this is better, retrace his steps and refish the last hundred yards.
The fish may chanco to rise at a natural fly and get sight of his would- bo captor, or still more likely, if he have been much tormented before, rise completely out of tho water to see if all's right. If the piscator remain, and the fish get sight of him, there will be no way but trying the next pool.
We once raised a fish of some size at the head of a very rapid stream. Our top being low, and pointing directly towards the fish, we were under the necessity of allowing the reel to turn a discretion. Our fajfudromous friend borrowed forty or fifty yards, and made an in- genious effort to jump into some willows, of which there was lack on both banks of the river. Failing by a foot or so, ho made down again, we following to the best of our ability, and giving line a regret, and against our principles, till all but reduced to a naked reel.
Tho irregular checks we gave so enraged the fish, that he made another spring that nearly veri- fied the lines of Drayton ; and with a flourish of his caudal member that drove the blood from our cheeks, he then recommenced pulling ten times as hard as before, having gained the neck of a fresh run. Play- ing our last stake, we " butted" him, as the expression goes, and succeeded in towing him into some bushes growing at the upper end of an island that lav nearly in the middle of the river, when the line entangled itself. The gut was first- rate, still we scarcely ex- pected it to stand.
It did, however, and with the play of the branches we perceived that our prize was brought to, or at anchor. We saw at once that if wo could but reach the island we should havo a chance of saving both line and fish. But the passage was dangerous. On our side of the channel was the deepest part. A long running leap from the bunk was a shoal with not more than a yard of water on it; but tho current was rapid. Still wo might maintain a footing there long enough to prepare for scrambling or swimming over the remainder of the channel, and be quick enough to catch the bushes on the island before being carried down beyond it into a rocky miniature Niagara, whero the river was reduced to one third of its ordinary width.
The mystery of his extraordinary behaviour was instantly cleared up. He had the tail- fly in his mouth, and the dropper in his tail; and, as if this was not enough, the line had taken a turn round it. Our man pitched us the ash- stick, and a heavy clearing- ring with twenty yards of strong whipcord attached to it. We finished the salmon's sufferings with the former, and, noosing one end of tho cord to the fish's tail, pitched the other, along with ring and stick, to our at- tendant, who lost no time iu towing the prize ashore.
It is easier at all times to get into a scrape than out of it. We had to swim for it at first starting, and barely succeeded in gaffing lerram firmam. Two yards lower down the steep bank would have rendered the feat impossible; down the rocky rapids should wo have floated, and left it to ourpoi- te sac to " Crowner's ' quest" to tell the tale. SIR,— I should feel obliged if " Episcopus " would kindly describle the reel he uses on the Trent near Nottingham for pike- fishing, in order that I may, if convinced of its efficacy, be weaned from a preju- dice in favour of a sixty- yard line trailing free.
I was much amused a fortnight since, when out with a friend, an old fisherman, a determined enemy to my loose line and supporter of the reel, by his apologies for continual difficulties with an unmanageable line, under the exact circumstances described by " Episco- pus," either in osier holts or wading twenty yards to get at at a likely spot.
Let the osiers be cut, and unless the reel be something very different from the ordinary brass article attached to the rod, I should be inclined to back the trailing line for comfort. Though born within ten miles of Trent, I have never been upon its banks, at least for fishing purposes, and so I am ignorant of the local device described, or rather undescribed, by " Episcopus. SIR,— With respect to the remarks of " Episcopus," it must be that the water- bailiff of the Marquis of Hastings takes all the salmon at Donnington Weir, as it is very certain that a salmon is a curiosity so high up the Trent as Alrewas, near Lichfield.
Some years ago a large salmon was taken trolling for pike as high up as Bromley, and this is the only other instance brought before my notice of salmon above the junction with the same. I wish the noble Marquis would let us see a few more of his salmon by lowering his weirs. The line does not get fastened, as he would appear to think.
When I have occasion to wade, I simply wind the line upon the flat winder, and in casting and drawing hold the coils in my hand. I have never fished the Trent about Nottingham, and therefore may not have seen the reel alluded to. Perhaps " Episcopus" would kindly send me one to look at, and I will return it. I note the editorial remarks with respect to unclean salmon. I find the account true; but that not more than one fish in twelve was clean fish, and, further, that very few of the unclean fish are returned to the water.
Elmley Lodge, llarborne, April 5. If it would not be troubling him too much, perhaps he would inform me, through the medium of your paper, what he considers are the best flies to be used on the lake and river in the months of May and June, or any other informa- tion about the fishing, and he will greatly oblige WASTWATER.
Thanks to the Carlisle Angling As- sociation, established a few years back, and to Mr. Woodhouse, of Armathwaite Castle, who also keeps two watchers on the river, the salmon have been more numerous this season than for the last thirty or forty years— so much so, that at the low end of the river, where they used to employ two boats, they are now using five. One fishery near the mouth of the river, I heard, was let lately for SIR,— I have seen lately some remarks in your paper respecting this fisb. I was much astonished one day, when out on a fishing expedition, in ob- serving a pair of them at work with a dead eel.
They were moving quietly along among the piles of a bridge that spans the river Nene, near Oundle. One fish had the head in his mouth, while the other dis- cussed the tail, nor did my presence at all disturb them in their comfortable chew. They often take minnow bait, and in fact all is fish that comes to their net; garbage of all kinds is their delight; insects, flies of all denominations, they revel in ; but grasshoppers, humble- bees, and blue- bottle flies are their peculiar weakness, and it is indeed a strong- minded chavender that can resist the luring green of a well- fed grass- hopper.
Our friend " Dace " gives minute directions as to his capture; but it has ever been a great doubt with me whether it was worth one's time following them up, although I have wasted some days over them, for when hooked they give one very little fun, and are utterly worthless for the pot. I should be glad if any one could give me a receipt for making him decently eatable.
SIR,— Your angling correspondent's manner of speaking of his " table vice " induces me to venture on a description of mine, in the belief that it is, after all, somewhat different from his. I am emboldened to do this the more because Mr. Bernard, who is no doubt a superior artist, had never seen anything like my apparatus when I showed it to him ; and because, when, after a lapse of a twelvemonth, I called to take it away again, it bore evident marks of long usage, and I fancied was actually in requisition at the time.
My vice then consists of a steel shaft about four inches long, with a hinge near the middle, and has the usual spring, screw, and button. The shaft is not so thick as a common goosequill, ex- cept at the screw and button; the jaws are not quite an eighth of an inch across, and it opens only just wideenough toadmit the largest sized salmon hook with facility; and it will of course secure tho very smallest hook that is manufactured. At the other end of the shaft are two or three turns of a male screw, by which it may be attached in an instant to a clasp on the table, which is provided with two female screws, one for fixing it in a perpendicular direction when looping is the object, and one for fixing it in the hori- zontal position ; but, when it is simply held in the hand, it gives a greater command of the hook screwed into it, and leaves the indispensable finger and thumb so much at liberty, that I should think it would not be without its use even in tying the wings of an Irish fly.
This, with a piece of brass or copper wire softened in the fire, and bent into an eye at one end and a hook at the other the use of which is obvious , is the whole of my apparatus. And, if it should turn out to be iden- tical with your correspondent's " table vice," or so similar as not to have needed this description, I have only to apologise for the trouble I have given, and to hope that there are other readers of THE FIELD to whom it may be as new as it was to Mr. Bernard, and as useful as it has been to myself and many of my friends.
SIR,— I agree with W. In answer to D. I had always taken the advice of old fishermen and abstained from fishing when the air appeared charged with electricity; until one day, on the Bann, some three years ago, I deter- mined to persist, and simultaneously with the first clap of thunder I hooked my first trout that morning, a fine fellow of lflb. The storm lasted about an hour, and during that time I landed twenty- two trout, of from jib. SIR,— Thanks to your numerous correspondents who have replied to my query, " whether an artificial bait should spin or wobble; but they all seem to vary in their opinion.
A bait that spins would surely be more like a fish in full vigour, active and in perfect health; and a wabble would represent a sickly, weak fish, or a spent one. Whyte also says that, " in Canada, where he first saw and used the spoon- bait, it was always made to wobble, and not to spin. Adams be kind enough to inform me how that is to be managed; because, if a minnow wobbles, it does not spin, and if it is made to spin it does not wobble?
Adams or any of your correspondents acquaint me how a minnow or bait should be made to wobble? The only way I know of is by using them without a swivel on the trace, or by trolling them very slowly. My flies are made by my servant, and are very different from any that I have ever seen or purchased in Lon- don, Dublin, and places in England; and I have been much more successful with them than with baits and spoons. I merely wish to ascertain which is the best and surest way of using bait—" spinning or wobbling.
SIR,— I should be very much pleased to read in your paper a short description of the fisheries of the noble river Severn, from Beachley Rocks, in the Bristol Channel, to the confluence of the Vemiew, in Montgomeryshire; and I think I remember seeing it stated in your columns, some time past, that the Hon.
Berkeley intended writing a letter to you on the subject. I trust he has not forgotten his promise, but that he will, on the conclusion of his present most excellent series of letters, give us an account of the Severn salmon- fisheries. The points upon which I for one am anxious to receive information, are— 1st. Where, in the Severn and its tributaries, do salmon annually spawn? Whether there is an annual migration of young salmon in the Severn down to the sea? In what month, and in what number? Where does the Severn river end and the Bristol Channel commence?
SIR,— I beg to send you an account of what I con- sider a rather remarkable shot, made by myself, on the afternoon of Monday last. It was this— killing three pike at a single " shot, with a rifle ball conical, hollow base. But to me the most remark- able part of it is, that I only saw two of them, and only shot at one, and, although the three were killed dead, two of them showed neither mark nor scratch upon them. Fletcher, the proprietor, and several gentlemen, from the windows of the hotel. The fish are in the hands of a preserver.
I plead guilty to its being rather an unsportsmanlike action, but it was more to try the effect of a rifle- ball on fish in the water than for the sake of taking the fish. Marlowes, Hemel Hempstead, April 1. SIR,— Observing that one of your correspondents inquires where he may find fishing in the smaller Swiss streams, I beg to inform him that he may get good sport in several pretty streams running into the Aar, between Aarburg and Soleure.
I can speak more particularly of one- that joins tho Aar at Mor- genthal, the name of which I have forgotten. I was very successful last June both with trout and near the" Aar with grayling. The innkeeper at Morgen- thal will give or get permission. I killed the trout almost exclusively with a red palmer and house fly, and the grayling with a blue dun. I believe this particular stream had scarcely ever been fished with a fly before.
It abounds with fish. The fish are generally very small, but are quite in- numerable. Moritz I was told that b.