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List of landmark court decisions in the United States
Set up a giveaway. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. What other items do customers buy after viewing this item? Feedback If you need help or have a question for Customer Service, contact us. Would you like to report poor quality or formatting in this book? Earl Warren Vote Split: In , 13 parents filed a suit against the Board of Education of the City of Topeka, Kansas, calling for the school district to reverse its policy of racial segregation.
Based on the precedent set in Plessy v. Ferguson, the district court ruled in favor of the board of education.
In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court declared that state laws were unconstitutional if they established separate public schools for black and white students. The Court maintained that such a policy had a negative effect on minority children. This decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of , which allowed state-sponsored segregation.
In , The New York State Board of Regents authorized a short, nondenominational prayer for recitation at the start of each school day. The Supreme Court overturned New York's decision to allow these prayers in schools. March 18, Chief Justice Presiding: Clarence Earl Gideon was charged in Florida state court with a felony. On the day of his trial, Gideon appeared in court without a lawyer because he was too poor to afford counsel. Gideon requested that the court appoint one for him; however, according to Florida state law an attorney may only be appointed to an indigent defendant in capital cases.
Landmark US Supreme Court rulings throughout history
From his prison cell, Gideon appealed to the Supreme Court, declaring that his Sixth Amendment rights, as applied to the states by the Fourteenth Amendment, had been violated. June 7, Chief Justice Presiding: In the state of Connecticut passed a law banning "any drug, medicinal article or instrument for the purpose of preventing conception. But when Estelle Griswold and Dr. Lee Burton were arrested and fined for opening a birth control clinic in Connecticut, the Supreme Court heard the case. Griswold argued that the law violated the 14th Amendment, Section One.
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The court agreed that the law violated the Constitution. The ruling of this case established that the Constitution protects a right to privacy. Connecticut overturned Connecticut state law and was the first time the Supreme Court held that marital privacy was something the Constitution protects. This decision would later form the basis of other landmark decisions such as Roe v. January 22, Chief Justice Presiding: She was a single mother and pregnant for a third time.
The Supreme Court ruled that the constitutional right to privacy extends to a woman's decision to have an abortion. The ruling made it constitutional for a woman to have an abortion in her first trimester. This ruling struck down individual state laws restricting abortion. Wade is still one of the most hotly debated court decisions.
December 18, Chief Justice Presiding: Harlan Stone Vote Split: Shorty after the Imperial Japanese Navy's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Executive Order authorized rounding up Americans of Japanese descent and placing them in internment camps throughout the nation. Fred Korematsu was one such citizen.
Roe v. Wade - Wikipedia
He, however, openly defied the order and stayed in his home in southern California, arguing that the federal law violated his Fifth Amendment rights. The Supreme Court upheld the decision of a federal appeals court and ruled that Koremastu's personal rights didn't outweigh what was perceived as necessary for the security of the nation at the time.
The Supreme Court upheld Executive Order , which authorized the department of the military to place citizens of Japanese descent in internment camps.
June 13, Chief Justice Presiding: On March 13, , Ernesto Miranda was arrested and interrogated for two hours, eventually signing a confession. At no time was Miranda told of his right to counsel or his right to remain silent. In court, Miranda's attorney argued that Miranda's confession should not be used because it wasn't completely voluntary.
The Supreme Court ruled that police had to follow certain protocol in order to protect a victim's Fifth Amendment rights. A typical Miranda warning includes the following: Anything you say or do may be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to consult an attorney before speaking to the police and to have an attorney present during questioning now or in the future. If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you before any questioning, if you wish.
If you decide to answer any questions now, without an attorney present, you will still have the right to stop answering at any time until you talk to an attorney. Knowing and understanding your rights as I have explained them to you, are you willing to answer my questions without an attorney present? The Supreme Court upheld the Fifth Amendment. April 14, Chief Justice Presiding: In , the State of Louisiana authorized a private company, the Crescent City Livestock Landing and Slaughterhouse Company, to control and oversee all the slaughtering of animals in New Orleans.
Over independent butchers united to sue Louisiana because the law banned any other slaughterhouse from operating in New Orleans. The butchers felt their 14th Amendment rights had been violated.
In the words of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Freeman Miller, "This statute is denounced [by the butchers] not only as creating a monopoly and conferring odious and exclusive privileges upon a small number of persons at the expense of the great body of the community of New Orleans, but it is asserted that it deprives a large and meritorious class of citizens — the whole of the butchers of the city — of the right to exercise their trade. This ruling upheld Louisiana's ability to charter a private company to oversee the butchering industry. May 18, Chief Justice Presiding: Melville Weston Fuller Vote Split: In , the state of Louisiana passed a law requiring separate accommodations for blacks and whites on railroads, including separate railway cars.
Homer Plessy, who was seven-eighths white and one-eighth African American, was arrested in accordance with Louisiana's Separate Car Act when he refused to move to a "blacks-only" railway car.