In this way, We would like to propose a snapshot of signs as part of the contemporary athenian landscape. This interpretation could also be seen as a testimony of the expression of the greek libertarian tradition. In the same time as a counterpoint, the Void team selected twenty photographers, who live in Athens, to create a camera-eye reverse-shot on this artistic study.
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Each cue of this dialogue refers to one of the twenty pictures, creating like this, a second photographic panorama. Void Gallery, Athens Printing: Paris — February Exhibition: This publication offer a new reading of those abstracts landscapes through combinaison of words extracted from different lexical fields. Some words come from printing process field and others from the Excursionnistes marseillais, a former organisation of Hikers whose the historical local was there where now Fotokino is placed.
Marseille — February Arcoprint milk, g, with Fedrigoni partnership Diffusion: Ambassade du Turfu Sold out. Arcoprint milk, g, en partenariat avec Fedrigoni Diffusion: After several meetings and interviews with library users, we did text and images posters based on anecdotes and stories about their relationship with the library Hermeland.
This work borrows book codes creating a dialogue between text and pictures. Finally, it was set up nearby the library building in Saint-Herblain during several months of renovation. On the wings of the rehabilitation of the former main hall S. Then we reinterpreted the visual language from the containers. Signs and letters on containers sheet metal, lights and adhesives tapes. Colombelles — June Colombelles — Juin La ville qui danse is a printed paper city constructed during a one week residency in Nantes.
During this week we developped a research on differents combined patterns to create a kinetic scenography and host musical performances for the opening night. After the show, thoses patterns were randomly compiled in a publication. Design and Implementation of a workshop opened permanently during a one-week residency in Nantes.
We have settled handmade and collective flag factory in Madeleine Champ-de-Mars neighbourhood. For this occasion, we asked to collectif Caoutchouc to illustrate stories about Madeleine neighbourhood history. Aubervilliers — December As part of creating a joint development zone for the restructuring of the city center — Facture district — Biganos, Arcachon Bay , Collectif Etc was chosen by the developer Aquitanis with the urban management team and landscape, architectural and technical coordination for a mission of consultation on the neighborhood.
The team includes Trouillot Hermel agency agent — landscape , 2: Then some satellite modules were placed downtown to highlight the spaces that are to be in the perimeter of the joint development zone, and at the same time question passers-by on future possible uses. Club Maximum Couleur is a two step project. People designed those pictures according to a string process, and the result can be seen as a re-reading of Le Havre landscape. A few weeks later, we set up an instalation in the gallery.
It was displaying a screenprinted work based on the residency time. Posters USG 15 Printing: Le Havre — May Posters Club Maximum Couleur Printing: Affiches USG 15 Impression: Affiches Club Maximum Couleur Impression: Then, they realized a fictional letter exchange with the pictures realized during the residency. Without local government reforms, this article argues, broader citizen engagement and demands for government accountability and responsiveness and more equitable service provision will fall far short of expectations generated by the Revolution.
We strive to work with all stakeholders to build alliances and coalitions to encourage change and introduce realistic alternatives and solutions for existing urban problems via our field work, policy briefs, public seminars and meetings, and public outreach. Rather than more undemocratic and elitist decisions, we explore and promote new urban policies that are more effective, equitable, participatory, and sustainable. Despite the complexity of urban challenges, many initiatives, including TADAMUN, are working to forge cooperation and solidarity among local residents, activists, government officials, architects, housing rights activists, civil society, local initiatives, and planners to address these critical issues see www.
The Morsi government did not take responsibility for the garbage problem or force internal and bureaucratic changes to solve it. In its rhetoric, the Morsi government argued that the solution to state reform was greater efficiency, better management, and ethical integrity. It should have engaged the zabaleen a longstanding community of refuse collectors who reside in Manshiet Nasr and who recycle the garbage , privately-contracted companies, and other stakeholders in the waste sector, particularly within the state, to serve the public interest, rather than blame citizens for the garbage in the streets see Fahmy and Sutton ; Furniss The Morsi government continued the Mubarak policy of building additional new cities in the desert, separating communities from employment options and their social ties, and further segregating the city along class lines.
For example, in May , the Minister of Housing declared a plan to build 44 new cities all over Egypt between and This path utilizes political protest, mobilization, and legal activism and presents new narratives and terminologies to the public. What started in the beginning as an effort to protect local neighborhoods and streets during a political and security crisis as the revolution unfolded in early grew into collective efforts to provide community services Bremer However, this type of activism has not changed the state itself nor forced the state and its leadership to enhance social justice in regard to the built environment at various scales.
Un peu d'histoire...
Unfortunately, and not surprisingly, the power of these new local initiatives was often ephemeral since they were voluntaristic, unrepresentative, and poorly or irregularly funded. They were able to play such a role by accessing detailed information about the cost of labor and materials for the paving project in the more open political climate after , although they had to struggle to convince the local authorities to work with them and not in isolation from the community. However, in the long run there are no guarantees that such claimed political space will survive.
Members of the Meet Oqba Popular Committee for the Defense of the Revolution lay paving stones in their streets after the installation of a new gas line. Community volunteers provided labor support and monitored the contractors. The challenge facing activists is how to move beyond protest to institutionalizing power. How can the state and its institutions as well as local bodies be transformed to embody revolutionary ideals? The question which faces many of these groups is whether their priorities should continue to focus on direct community needs, or whether they should, in parallel, demand more state recognition and institutionalized, legal representation?
In these circumstances, it is very difficult for a local initiative to force or persuade the government to listen to them. Can anyone under the current institutional framework really have a voice in governmental development plans? At the same time, even if the long-promised municipal elections are held after the upcoming Presidential and Parliamentary elections in , will their members be able to influence development plans and contest policies with the executive councils, national ministry staff, and the governorate given their lack of technical knowledge and relative political weakness?
Real power remains in the hands of the central government and its local bureaucratic institutions. The articles which regulate local administration promulgated in the Constitution were very disappointing to many and largely maintained the highly centralized and managerial character of local administration from the Mubarak era.
For instance, these articles do not allow citizens to elect their own governors or mayors. The post-revolutionary Constitutions did not give the Local Municipal Units more autonomy to raise their own funds at the local level or allow them greater control and management of the services usually delivered by the central level in Egypt, such as healthcare and education. One new positive dimension of the articles in the new constitution related to local government is that the minimum age of candidates for the local councils was lowered to 21 years of age and a quarter of seats are allocated to youth and another quarter to women.
How can local initiatives shift their attention to mobilizing and building broader constituencies and coalitions towards these ends? Local initiatives should pressure the government to invest financial resources where the majority of residents live. In fact, the state has far fewer resources than it did before the Revolution and expectations for change and progress are still high. The state needs to recognize its limits, seek out citizen contributions and partner with them, and value the community assets human, physical, social, financial, and natural assets of the entire city rather than to stigmatize the poor and informal areas and underestimate their internal resources, as it has been doing for decades.
The state needs to explore and expand channels to collaborate with new initiatives in an institutionalized and mutually beneficial manner. Greater participation at the local level not only enhances claims-making on the state but it can be an indirect way to deepen representative democracy by creating a more demanding and engaged citizenry. In other words, participation is not only an end but a means to more representation. The idea for the project was an outcome of the upsurge in public participation and civic action that followed the popular uprising. Their use of social audits spread throughout the country, culminating eventually in the Right to Information Act , enabling millions of citizens to have access to public records and government documents to hold their government officials accountable and to monitor government expenditure in different public projects.
Typically, to overcome protest exhaustion and new political realities in a post-revolutionary situation, citizens must switch from mobilizing against the power structure to engaging and cooperating with it, if not joining the government itself. Of course, some examples such as South Africa provide cautionary tales about opposition groups who are rapidly absorbed into the new government, leaving civil society severely depleted.
In Latin America, for example, after the defeat of military regimes in the s and s, movements to promote social justice in the built environment and increased democratization at the local level promoted new understandings of the collective or social right to property; they encouraged the use of cooperative housing and more generally politicized the discourse around urban planning to demand broader citizen deliberation in planning processes.
They spearheaded a new approach to urban planning which includes a much more political and redistributive lens rather than a top-down management approach, or a technical and bureaucratic one, common in autocratic regimes. Participatory governance promoted the devolution of state power to improve local municipal politics and strengthen new democratic actors in order to hold the new, supposedly more responsive government accountable.
Paradoxically, the legislature and the executive were still dominated by rather conservative forces from the military era and the Brazilian military was never held accountable for its human rights abuses. Through this participatory constitutional process, a coalition gathered , signatures from all over the country to add the Urban Reform Grassroots Amendment to the Constitution. In Morocco the pressure from the campaign led to some significant reforms.
In Iran, activists were less successful. These strategies can be utilized again for mass lobbying and petition campaigns to demand more local participation, citizen engagement, and constitutional changes. Coalitions need to focus on broad social justice issues rather than ideological or party affiliation to foster social justice in the built environment and strengthen democratic municipal politics.
Some of those groups had been active in the fight against the military and others continued to promote land rights, public services, racial equality, indigenous rights, or a living wage. The Brazilian case provides evidence that a participatory approach to governance, promoted in a sequential, incremental process, can provide great dividends to urban populations, while simultaneously strengthening national democratic processes. The model has since spread across Latin America and the globe.
Politique et Internet : une citoyenneté renouvelée ?
The WP increased its electoral strength and regional presence by promoting participatory budgeting throughout the country, at the local municipal level, inviting citizens to join a series of highly organized meetings and workshops to prioritize and fund local needs. In Porto Alegre, Brazil in the late s and s, citizens took over many functions usually reserved for bureaucrats: By , some 20, individuals in the city were attending the first round of meetings, many of them for the first time.
A conservative estimate was that ten percent of adults in the city had at one point participated.
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The process has not only led to tighter monitoring of public services and development projects because of the closer scrutiny of these lengthy deliberative bodies, but engaged citizens were often able to redirect more national and state resources to the local level as well. At the same time, there was not only a political learning curve of newly active citizens, but growth in the number of collective organizations they established, and new political blood as a new cadre of candidates ran for elective office and leadership positions after their involvement in participatory budgeting.
Yet, a variety of urban activists, human rights organizations, civil society organizations, professional architects and planners, as well as local initiatives rooted in communities and neighborhoods continue their struggle to enhance social justice and improve the built environment and urban development.
ISP - Institut des Sciences sociales du Politique UMR - KIRSZBAUM Thomas
We argue that an urban agenda which prioritizes the following goals, as difficult as they may be, is still urgently needed. Often popular complaints are limited in scope to solving an immediate problem: These are legitimate problems, but require limited solutions. Rarely does a demand for adequate utility services escalate to demands and a long-term pragmatic strategy to change the nature of service delivery or the distribution of services throughout the city.
Demands to save a community from demolition do not escalate into demands to insist on more deliberative, accountable, inclusive, and participatory urban planning in Egypt or rejecting predominant neoliberal economic regime. Instead, ministerial roles and responsibilities are so opaque and sometimes unclear even to government officials themselves that citizens are sometimes at a loss about which Minister, Ministry, or parastatal to target. The government knows this and tries to maintain its bureaucratic interests, insulate itself from the public, and serve the rulers at the top, continuing their paternalistic and autocratic relationships with their citizens.
Nevertheless, it is state policies and regulations which need transformation so that the state can serve the larger public interest. Involving citizens in the planning process can be difficult and more complicated for them.
This is not to suggest that there is no place in planning for the rational approach — data is powerful and the Egyptian government should do all they can to improve their data collection efforts — but a vision for a city or neighborhood that derives from the people who live there will not only be more democratic, but will likely be more successful. The Egyptian government has spent billions of Egyptian pounds building dozens of new cities over the past several decades and as part of the National Strategic Plan for urban development, plans to build 44 additional cities by