Medicin 91 Synonyma zusammenstellt. Wie Dioskurides selbst versichert, hat er die Gelegenheit seiner Reisen zur eigenen Beobachtung lebender Pflanzen und anderer Heilmittel fleissig benutzt. Die Materia medica des Anazarbeers war aber so epochemachend, dass, sobald sie bekannt wurde, der Verfasser in der Gelehrtenwelt Aufsehen erregen musste. Buches des Dioskurides in der Anwendung viel Uebereinstimmendes hat: Die Uebereinstimmung, die zwischen beiden Autoren sowohl in der Beschreibung als auch im pharmokologischen Theil besteht, bewist, dass der Plinianische Bericht aus Sextius Niger entlehnt ist.
Wenn Galen De fac. Die wichtigsten Handschriften des Dioskurides sind bei Sprengel 1. Sambucus bei seiner Herausgabe des Dioskurides benutzte, Sprengel bezeichnet ihn als Cod. Der estere wurde durch den Gesandten Busbecq von einem Patricier Ant. Kantakuzenos zu Constantinopel beschafft und nach Wien gebracht. Ebenso ist der Neapolitanus alphabetisch geordnet und reichlich illustrirt; er stammt aus dem 7. Die beste Aufgabe ist die Aldina, gedruckt bei Aldus Manutius zu Venedig im Jahre , aber wenig bekannt geworden; Sprengel, welcher sie besass, nennt sie kunst- und glanzvoll.
Es gibt eine zweite Aldina, welche Saracenus, da er die erste nicht kannte, als die einzige Aldina bezeichnet. Sie erschien zu Venedig von Fr. Asulanus, dem Schwager des Aldus, unter Mitarbeit von Hier. Rosci, Arzt zu Padua; sie wird von Sprengel verurtheilt.
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Goupylus mit der Uebersetzung von Ruellius. Saracenus Frankfurt her. Lateinische Uebersetzungen des Dioskurides sind nach R. Die letztgenannte Compilation besteht aus Bildern des Krateuas, aus den Synonymenverzeichnissen eines den Pamphilos ausbeutenden Interpolators und aus dem Dioskurides-Text mit Parallelstellen aus Krateuas und Galen. Which system of fluid measures and weights Dioscorides has used in his prescriptions, whether it is the Greek and indeed the Attic system a mixture of decimal and duodecimal systems , or the Roman with Greek titles, we cannot say with absolute certainty, because he himself gives no information at all about this matter so important for a materia medica.
In Imperial times one finds the Greek weight unified with the Roman. Plinius XXI speaks about it so: The Attic drachma - because the physicians measure mostly by the Attic - has the weight of a silver denarius , it constitutes the weight of 6 obols , the obol holds 10 chalci, the jigger [de: Becher ] Cyathus weighs 10 drachmas. When one speaks of the Acetabulum volume, so it is the fourth part of a Hemine, i. The Mna, which we name the mina , contains Attic drachmas.
This, my friends, is the table of weights and measures, whereby I begin with the smallest and come by duplication to the mine. Johannisbrodsame ], the Roman Siliqua. This is the weight of water and food; but one says that the weight of rainwater was to be the most reliable definition, the Chus containing Drachmen. What the table concerns, the address to a friend, the dedication, closes out, that the treatise on the measures and weights on exceptional abandonment, perhaps is prepared to the solution of a question already lingering [de: Also one would surely not proceed to make such an addition to Dioscorides' writings so soon after his death - when he died, we do not know.
The capacity measures are separated according to the specific gravities of the liquids. The Kongion , Hemikongion , and the Hemine do not occur in Dioskorides; in comparison the small measures are missing: One takes from this that Dioscorides made use of the Roman duodecimal weight and measure system; this is also very likely because one finds purely Roman expressions such as Urna , and others are often simply translations, for example Keration for Siliqua , Xestes for Sextarius , Tetarton for Quartarius.
Probably in all places where the Choinix , a purely Greek name, is mentioned, the Attic is understood.
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What occurred most often, the preferred measure for the dosing of medicines, was the Drachme. Then we get the first timed race. We have to get the buggy ready to start as fast as we can and sit in it with all buckles fastened. If you look at the video, I'm amazed myself that we managed to do it that quickly. In all our previous attempts we've managed about 8 seconds. But now we're full of adrenalin. The umpire measures an amazing 6 seconds.
Motivated we proceed to the start. It's almost too swiftly for me. I almost can't focus on the course, but I'm glad we've done that before the race. After a short interview, it's time. We tread the pedals. Both wheels go into overdrive. We give less juice. At once there's the first obstacle, funnily enough the buggy flies over the first obstacle. The rest goes smoothly and we don't realise the remaining bumps. Then it's downhill, followed by a difficult obstacle which you need to take with a lot of speed.
That proved the buggy killer number one in previous years! A lot of rims gave up here in the past. Also because Steffi shouts "break! When it's behind us, I realise that the officials have made this quite a bit smoother than last year. Now there's the horizontal part with a few pebbled tracks. That means I have to aim to get into the curve in a wider berth to approach the hurdle directly and use the entire force of the drive to avoid falling of the side of the bump. As planned we pass the dirt bump. The track goes on uphill over two obstacles and along a couple of pistes into the crater.
As in the final years, this is the most exhausting part in the middle of the race. I try to negotiate as many loose rocks as possible, since in the concrete crater it is in fact the rocks that make driving hard. Then there are more curves with more or less difficult hurdles where I start feeling my legs. A sharp curve below the rocket and through to the final steep ascent. He're everyone's down to walking speed. That means you're exerting your final power reserves, if you have any left.
Then it's just downhill, over a couple of dirt hills back to the Shuttle.
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Here another few tricky hurdles await. There's a 4m long sandbank and dovetailing hills on which we've tailored the steering mechanism in our buggy perfectly. Nevertheless, we lose, as all the other teams, a lot of time here as the ground is soft an offers a lot of resistance. That's why the final meters are pure torture.
I remember that I'm supposed to honk the horn and enter the finish with Steffi, totally exhausted. Everything worked out and is still stable. My gutfeeling tells me that the race must have been good, around 4 minutes and therefore maybe a score in the front area of the field. I've given everything and can't even sit up straight when the NASA reporter is there to ask me questions.
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I try to answer but can't string a coherent sentence together, so she goes over to Steffi. She still has some strenght left and kann answer, at least in short sentences. The only thing I want to do is lie down. I unfasten my seat-belt, summon my last ounces of strength and sit down on the dewy grass, knees shaking. That my clothes get wet doesn't bother me. I notice how someone jumps on me with a great shriek.
It's Steffi who announces amazedly that we were 3 seconds faster than the team of the Huntsville Technology Center who scored best last year. At once we wonder how long they need to fold up their vehicle. After a short while we get confirmation that we drove the annual track record with 3: And that despite of the fact that most of the best teams started before us.
I'm proud of our achievement. But somehow I knew that the buggy had matured into a single unit with Steffi and myself in order to pull of a miracle and reward our hard work during the past years. The team gathers together around us, who're still on the grass, exhausted but elated. We can hardly believe it. The track record is about 3: But as it will turn out later today, this isn't nearly reached. On getting some strength, we're off back to our booth. Apparently the news spread through the grapevine, as there are congratulations from everywhere. A lot of people make a point of dropping by to congratulate us, and also when we move around the area we're met with beaming faces, some of whom are even German and wish us all the best in our mother tongue.
De Materia Medica/Book 0
It's so unbelievable how nice and open everyone is. We spend the remaining long day in the area. We either go and see other buggies on their test drives, check out the rides or stroll through the museum. We regularly come back to the score tables on which we're leading for a long time. However, towards the end of the race we get the news that another team beat us by 3 seconds.
Again we're asking ourselves immediately how long they needed to fold up the buggy. With a small delay, there are the news that they actually took 10 seconds longer. So we keep the first place until the end of the day and are overjoyed. Finally, we invite the other international teams for a little get-together to get this international community to further coordinate their collaborative efforts and to promote the Moonbuggy Race in the entire world.
This visit was designed for us all to get to know each other and we've toyed with the idea as early as December in Philadelphia. Their first impression was surprise about the changes of the Leipzig area during the post unification years. It was the intention of the International Space Education Institute to show the delegates as much as possible of the enthusiasm, excitement and pioneering spirit in the area of space education in Leipzig as bridge between Huntsville and Moscow. The focus was to present an overview of the achievements of networking outside state funded schemes, in particular how this resulted in a winning team at the NASA Moonbuggy Race 6 weeks earlier.
Accordingly, the schedule was packed and there wasn't time to visit all ports of call on the itinerary. But at all times there were constructive conversations on an almost visionary level. At the end of the day both parties gained profound insights into each others' work and formed a strong basis for future cooperation. Throughout the day, they surprised each other with an open and cordial air, subject competency and a personal interest at the core of change for education and vocational orientation.
Observatory Kletzen Mr Henri Schulz, Director This is private, self-constructed observatory acts as school observatory for SEI students and their high school science projects.
It also broadens the horizons optical and philosophical of young people. The designer, builder and owner is a member of the institute and has acquired all related knowledge and skills autodidactically and through practice. Both guests appeared impressed and interested in all details. Mr Schulz cherished the spotless subject matter expertise of his guests. This meeting served as encounter of two industries who, according to received wisdom, don't go together.
SEI understands craft, engineering and science as integrated unit and practices that in its training programme. The discussion mainly focused on necessary ways for a new approach to education and vocational orientation. A common denominator was quickly found. At the end of the visit, ambassador Yvonne Heckel presented the president of the chamber with the world champion award of the Moonbuggy team and thanked them for their support. The Chamber of Crafts displayed selected parts of the Moonbuggy and its processes and engineering background in a cabinet. Thus they learned a lot about the historical roots and their evolution from crafts and engineering into today's spaceflight industry.
It was a surprise for the guests to find that parts of the Korolyev family Sputnik have been in Saxony already since and are still here today. The simplicity of the building and its interior encourages down-to-earthness and hard work in home-rule. Remaining overnight accommodation is utilised as part of the "Space Hostel" during fair season to cover overheads and project costs during.
They support vocational orientation in crafts and techology without neglecting sports and fun. On one hand the Moonbuggy offered the perfect prerequisites and combined them with the necessary thrill of the new for the students. On the other, the sports students focus their construction team on a single mission goal with their enviable training drive.
The SEI has learnt to appreciate this symbiosis very much. Max Frank trained the world champion Moonbuggy-Team and held a talk to 8th graders. The DLR guests observed that lesson and saw the student's enthusiasm sparked by Max during the break when all admired the Moonbuggy on display. The cabinet also contains parts, processes and awards. They made a big impression on the guests.
The meeting with the students, enthusiastic teachers and the competency of Max opened hearts. This low budget business model benefitted from the experience of over 70 flight trips in the framework of SEI. The conference hotel is intended as venue for international exchange groups, workshops, seminars, and of course as another business and vocational instruction centre.
The interior walls consist of hundreds of images from our many excursions through the world of spaceflight. In the tradition of the third US president Jefferson, the bible usually found in the drawers of hotel room furniture was swapped with the books "On the trails of chief constructor Korolyev" and "To the Moon with Bolts and Nuts" about Eberhard Rees.
Thus the focus was placed on science, craft and technology. The Business-Centre was rebuilt into a Miniclub. The former breakfast buffet is now an online-restaurant with PCs. All food is delivered in 15 min on the push of a button while you work next door in an integrated NASA-style way. There's the local speciality Leizpiger Allerlei, followed by kettle goulash and red cabbage. Schmidt, Director This place combines 35 vocational apprenticeships under one roof.
The fragrances change from motor oil and welding smoke, from butchery, wood workshop to construction. We don't have time to look at everything. Nevertheless, the integrated concept and the enthusiasm of new possibilities through the Space Euducation Institute convince with their ability to provide visions and goals for the apprentices.
Dr Schmidt guides the delegates through the halls and earns their praise and recognition at every stop, above all through the innovative combination of apprenticeship and further education. During a coffee break at around 4pm, we reflect on the visit and decide it was not the last one. At 5pm a long but very eye-opening day ends for everyone. Hi Mr Heckel, I hope you had a successful day yesterday. Have only heard positive news from Dr Schmidt. Andrea Wolter, Communications Director, Chamber of Crafts Leipzig Dear Mr Heckel I was impressed by your considerable historical and up-to-date knowledge of spaceflight in the US and equally in Russia.
I don't know of anyone who is that excellently connected to the contemporaries of the beginnings of spaceflight and their descendants. In particular I liked how, as space visioneers, you and your wife managed to win youngsters, industry and even the Chamber of Crafts for your Moonbuggy project, and thus sparked their fascination for spaceflight. We could also think about a collaborative summercamp. Before I end I have another compliment for the owner of the private observatory, Mr Henri Schulz correct name?
He has fulfilled the dream I had as a teenager aged about And he did it without formal degrees in astronomy, electronics, optics or construction. Dr Wolfgang Mett, DLR Leipzig is still worth a trip today It was hardly known a few years ago that this town was home to some of the godfathers of spaceflight. Those roots were found only after the investigations of the SEI, and they reach far into the past into times where the term spaceflight itself was still unknown. But from an aviation, aerospace and astronomy perspective, Leipzig is not only a historically interesting venue.
There are also new approaches to get young people into engineering. The broad range of activities in technology and science are given the cutting edge by aviation and space. This paved the way through integration of private intitiative, and the areas of enterprise and education. It is great to see that representatives of DLR came to get a first hand impression and were able to witness themselves what was created here in the past years.
Now it's important to focus the existing forces to sustainably and continuously strengthen the position of the area as a location for vocational orientation. The successes of the Moonbuggy as product of international collaboration of motivated youths show us a direction where the results of future collaborative support through the areas of aviation and space could make Leipzig into a source of future technology development.
I will continue to support the students of SEI in the future. This is what I see as my commitment as a member of DGLR and, to be honest, it's fun to work with motivated youngsters. Peter Scheuermann, Teacher for IT, astronomy and amateur radio. Eingestellt von Spaceeducation um 9: Eingestellt von Spaceeducation um Beating 2nd place team by just one second, our team became the 1st place winner this year. The following 4 teams were close behind, within 4 seconds.
Of all the scores, even of the university class, our team is the best worldwide. It's not explicitly mentioned, but it's a fact. One team Jupiter High School of Florida, USA was faster by 4 seconds on the race course, but their design was lacking when un-folding the buggy.
While our team was ready to gorace in 6 seconds, the faster team took 16 seconds. The fastest assembly time was only 4 seconds, but that team's parts wouldn't have fit into a collection of luggage suitcases. Thus in this sense, our team is the world champion! Today is a cosmonautics celebration day.
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I'm looking towards the future: Will we succeed in having a Russian team join us in the upcoming anniversary year? It could be a small but important "space race" for the youth. For next year, also the Lunar Rover celebrates its 40th anniversary. In my experience, national thinking is not easily left behind when not working in multi-national teams. Here, it could serve for motivating all parties to achieve their best. I'd like to recap the previous hours while they're still fresh in my mind. The kids are full of energy and drive, cool and focused, ambitious and deliberate in their striving to unite their feelings for a single cause.
This is how I've known them for four years. This is the most amazing time for every teacher or youth educator. No-one but me, Yvonne and a small number of teachers really know how this moment feels.