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Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J J School of Art in Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence. Mother of Cities to me, For I was born in her gate, Between the palms and the sea, Where the world-end steamers wait. According to Bernice M. Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent in his fiction.

Kipling referred to such conflicts, for example: Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended when he was five years old. In his autobiography, published some 65 years later, Kipling recalled the stay with horror, and wondered if the combination of cruelty and neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs. Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life: If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific.

Yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; Mrs. Holloway apparently hoped that Trix would eventually marry the Holloways' son. They spent a month each Christmas with their maternal aunt Georgiana "Georgy" and her husband, Edward Burne-Jones, at their house, The Grange, in Fulham , London, which Kipling called "a paradise which I verily believe saved me.

In the spring of , Alice returned from India and removed the children from Lorne Lodge. Kipling remembers, "Often and often afterwards, the beloved Aunt would ask me why I had never told any one how I was being treated. Children tell little more than animals, for what comes to them they accept as eternally established. Also, badly-treated children have a clear notion of what they are likely to get if they betray the secrets of a prison-house before they are clear of it". Near the end of his time at the school, it was decided that Kipling lacked the academic ability to get into Oxford University on a scholarship.

He sailed for India on 20 September , and arrived in Bombay on 18 October. He described this moment years later: Other Indian-born boys have told me how the same thing happened to them. After these, my English years fell away, nor ever, I think, came back in full strength". The Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore, the newspaper which Kipling was to call "mistress and most true love", [25] appeared six days a week throughout the year except for one-day breaks for Christmas and Easter.

Stephen Wheeler, the editor, worked Kipling hard, but Kipling's need to write was unstoppable. In , he published his first collection of verse, Departmental Ditties. That year also brought a change of editors at the newspaper; Kay Robinson , the new editor, allowed more creative freedom and Kipling was asked to contribute short stories to the newspaper. In an article printed in the Chums boys' annual, an ex-colleague of Kipling's stated that In the summer of , Kipling visited Shimla then known as Simla , a well-known hill station and the summer capital of British India.

By then, it was established practice for the Viceroy of India and the government to move to Simla for six months, and the town became a "centre of power as well as pleasure". Rudyard Kipling returned to Simla for his annual leave each year from to , and the town featured prominently in many of the stories that he wrote for the Gazette.


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He describes this time: It began in heat and discomfort, by rail and road. Back in Lahore, some thirty-nine stories appeared in the Gazette between November and June Kipling included most of these stories in Plain Tales from the Hills , his first prose collection, which was published in Calcutta in January , a month after his 22nd birthday.

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Kipling's time in Lahore, however, had come to an end. In November , he was transferred to the Gazette' s much larger sister newspaper, The Pioneer , in Allahabad in the United Provinces. In Allahabad, he worked as the Assistant editor of The Pioneer and lived in Belvedere house, Allahabad from to Kipling's writing continued at a frenetic pace; in , he published six collections of short stories: In addition, as The Pioneer's special correspondent in the western region of Rajputana , he wrote many sketches that were later collected in Letters of Marque and published in From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches, Letters of Travel.

Kipling was discharged from The Pioneer in early , after a dispute. By this time, he had been increasingly thinking about the future. He decided to use this money to make his way to London, the literary centre of the British Empire. Kipling was favourably impressed by Japan, writing that the Japanese were "gracious folk and fair manners". Kipling later wrote that he "had lost his heart" to a geisha whom he called O-Toyo, writing while in the United States during the same trip across the Pacific that: Weeping softly for O-Toyo O-Toyo was a darling". Kipling arrived unannounced at Twain's home, and later wrote that as he rang the doorbell, "It occurred to me for the first time that Mark Twain might possibly have other engagements other than the entertainment of escaped lunatics from India, be they ever so full of admiration.

As it was, Twain was glad to welcome Kipling and had a two-hour conversation with him on trends in Anglo-American literature and about what Twain was going to write in a sequel to Tom Sawyer, with Twain assuring Kipling that a sequel was coming; but he had not decided upon the ending: In London, Kipling had several stories accepted by magazines. He also found a place to live for the next two years at Villiers Street , near Charing Cross the building was subsequently named Kipling House:.

Meantime, I had found me quarters in Villiers Street , Strand , which forty-six years ago was primitive and passionate in its habits and population. My rooms were small, not over-clean or well-kept, but from my desk I could look out of my window through the fanlight of Gatti's Music-Hall entrance, across the street, almost on to its stage. The Charing Cross trains rumbled through my dreams on one side, the boom of the Strand on the other, while, before my windows, Father Thames under the Shot tower walked up and down with his traffic.

In the next two years, he published a novel, The Light that Failed , had a nervous breakdown , and met an American writer and publishing agent, Wolcott Balestier , with whom he collaborated on a novel, The Naulahka a title which he uncharacteristically misspelt; see below. He cut short his plans for spending Christmas with his family in India when he heard of Balestier's sudden death from typhoid fever and immediately decided to return to London. Before his return, he had used the telegram to propose to and be accepted by Wolcott's sister Caroline Starr Balestier — , called "Carrie", whom he had met a year earlier, and with whom he had apparently been having an intermittent romance.

On 18 January , Carrie Balestier aged 29 and Rudyard Kipling aged 26 were married in London, in the "thick of an influenza epidemic, when the undertakers had run out of black horses and the dead had to be content with brown ones. Henry James gave the bride away. Kipling and his wife settled upon a honeymoon that would take them first to the United States including a stop at the Balestier family estate near Brattleboro, Vermont and then on to Japan.

Taking this loss in their stride, they returned to the US, back to Vermont — Carrie by this time was pregnant with their first child —and rented a small cottage on a farm near Brattleboro for ten dollars a month. According to Kipling, "We furnished it with a simplicity that fore-ran the hire-purchase system. We bought, second or third hand, a huge, hot-air stove which we installed in the cellar.

We cut generous holes in our thin floors for its eight-inch [20 cm] tin pipes why we were not burned in our beds each week of the winter I never can understand and we were extraordinarily and self-centredly content. In this house, which they called Bliss Cottage , their first child, Josephine, was born "in three-foot of snow on the night of 29 December Her Mother's birthday being the 31st and mine the 30th of the same month, we congratulated her on her sense of the fitness of things It was also in this cottage that the first dawnings of the Jungle Books came to Kipling: It chanced that I had written a tale about Indian Forestry work which included a boy who had been brought up by wolves.

After blocking out the main idea in my head, the pen took charge, and I watched it begin to write stories about Mowgli and animals, which later grew into the two Jungle Books ". Kipling named the house Naulakha , in honour of Wolcott and of their collaboration, and this time the name was spelled correctly.

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In the short span of four years, he produced, in addition to the Jungle Books , a collection of short stories The Day's Work , a novel Captains Courageous , and a profusion of poetry, including the volume The Seven Seas. The collection of Barrack-Room Ballads was issued in March , first published individually for the most part in , and containing his poems " Mandalay " and " Gunga Din ". He especially enjoyed writing the Jungle Books — both masterpieces of imaginative writing — and enjoyed, too, corresponding with the many children who wrote to him about them. The writing life in Naulakha was occasionally interrupted by visitors, including his father , who visited soon after his retirement in , [16] and British writer Arthur Conan Doyle , who brought his golf-clubs, stayed for two days, and gave Kipling an extended golf lesson.

From all accounts, Kipling loved the outdoors, [16] not least of whose marvels in Vermont was the turning of the leaves each fall.

Kalpana chawla story in Hindi

He described this moment in a letter: Next morning there was an answering signal from the swamp where the sumacs grow. Three days later, the hill-sides as fast as the eye could range were afire, and the roads paved, with crimson and gold.

Then a wet wind blew, and ruined all the uniforms of that gorgeous army; and the oaks , who had held themselves in reserve, buckled on their dull and bronzed cuirasses and stood it out stiffly to the last blown leaf, till nothing remained but pencil-shadings of bare boughs, and one could see into the most private heart of the woods. In February , Elsie Kipling was born, the couple's second daughter.

By this time, according to several biographers, their marital relationship was no longer light-hearted and spontaneous. The Kiplings loved life in Vermont and might have lived out their lives there, were it not for two incidents—one of global politics, the other of family discord—that hastily ended their time there. By the early s, the United Kingdom and Venezuela were in a border dispute involving British Guiana.

The US had made several offers to arbitrate, but in , the new American Secretary of State Richard Olney upped the ante by arguing for the American "right" to arbitrate on grounds of sovereignty on the continent see the Olney interpretation as an extension of the Monroe Doctrine. Although the crisis led to greater US-British co-operation, at the time Kipling was bewildered by what he felt was persistent anti-British sentiment in the US, especially in the press. A family dispute became the final straw. For some time, relations between Carrie and her brother Beatty Balestier had been strained, owing to his drinking and insolvency.

In May , an inebriated Beatty encountered Kipling on the street and threatened him with physical harm. In July , a week before the hearing was to resume, the Kiplings packed their belongings, left the United States, and returned to England. By September , the Kiplings were in Torquay , Devon, on the southwestern coast of England, in a hillside home overlooking the English Channel.

Although Kipling did not much care for his new house, whose design, he claimed, left its occupants feeling dispirited and gloomy, he managed to remain productive and socially active. Kipling was now a famous man, and in the previous two or three years had increasingly been making political pronouncements in his writings.

The Kiplings had welcomed their first son, John , in August Kipling had begun work on two poems, " Recessional " and " The White Man's Burden " which were to create controversy when published. Regarded by some as anthems for enlightened and duty-bound empire-building that captured the mood of the Victorian age , the poems equally were regarded by others as propaganda for brazenfaced imperialism and its attendant racial attitudes; still others saw irony in the poems and warnings of the perils of empire. Take up the White Man's burden— Send forth the best ye breed— Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child.

There was also foreboding in the poems, a sense that all could yet come to naught. Far-called, our navies melt away; On dune and headland sinks the fire: Lo, all our pomp of yesterday Is one with Nineveh and Tyre! Judge of the Nations, spare us yet. Lest we forget—lest we forget! In early , the Kiplings travelled to South Africa for their winter holiday, thus beginning an annual tradition which excepting the following year was to last until They always stayed in "The Woolsack", a house on Cecil Rhodes ' estate at Groote Schuur and now a student residence for the University of Cape Town ; it was within walking distance of Rhodes' mansion.

Kipling cultivated their friendship and came to admire the men and their politics. The period — was crucial in the history of South Africa and included the Second Boer War — , the ensuing peace treaty, and the formation of the Union of South Africa. Back in England, Kipling wrote poetry in support of the British cause in the Boer War and on his next visit to South Africa in early , he became a correspondent for The Friend newspaper in Bloemfontein , which had been commandeered by Lord Roberts for British troops.

Although his journalistic stint was to last only two weeks, it was Kipling's first work on a newspaper staff since he left The Pioneer in Allahabad more than ten years earlier. Gwynne , and others. Bateman's was Kipling's home from until his death in It had no bathroom, no running water upstairs, and no electricity, but Kipling loved it: It is a good and peaceable place. We have loved it ever since our first sight of it.

In the non-fiction realm he became involved in the debate over the British response to the rise in German naval power known as the Tirpitz Plan to build a fleet to challenge the Royal Navy, publishing a series of articles in which were collected as A Fleet in Being. On a visit to the United States in , Kipling and Josephine developed pneumonia , from which she eventually died. In the wake of his daughter's death, Kipling concentrated on collecting material for what would become Just So Stories for Little Children. That work was published in , the year after Kim was first issued.

In his poem The Rowers , Kipling attacked the Kaiser as a threat to Britain and made the first use of the term "Hun" as an anti-German insult, using Wilhelm's own words and the actions of German troops in China to portray Germans as essentially barbarians. The first decade of the 20th century saw Kipling at the height of his popularity. Kipling wrote a number of speculative fiction short stories, including " The Army of a Dream ", in which he attempted to show a more efficient and responsible army than the hereditary bureaucracy of England at that time, and two science fiction stories, With the Night Mail and As Easy As A.

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The novel begins the story of Anne at age eleven and follows her life and schooling through to age sixteen. Montgomery's most popular and well-loved series.


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There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Anne of Green Gables is a wonderful classic story and it gets 5 stars. This particular printing, however, is completely unacceptable. It's as if someone typed it into a document, and printed it off--no page numbers, not titled at the top of each page, the lines don't even break properly see photo. Purchased as a gift, thankfully with enough time to purchase a better quality copy--probably for less money! A disgrace to the publishing community.

Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. As soon as the product was delivered to my device, I began to read it since it's been years since I've visited the darling world that L. I was very surprised to find that I kept tripping on certain sentences; the writing didn't seem as smooth as I remembered.

Rudyard Kipling

Hermits , monks , and priests used this historic period to write biographies. Their subjects were usually restricted to the church fathers , martyrs , popes , and saints. Their works were meant to be inspirational to the people and vehicles for conversion to Christianity see Hagiography. One significant secular example of a biography from this period is the life of Charlemagne by his courtier Einhard.

In Medieval Islamic Civilization c. AD to , similar traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad and other important figures in the early history of Islam began to be written, beginning the Prophetic biography tradition.

Biography - Wikipedia

Early biographical dictionaries were published as compendia of famous Islamic personalities from the 9th century onwards. They contained more social data for a large segment of the population than other works of that period. The earliest biographical dictionaries initially focused on the lives of the prophets of Islam and their companions , with one of these early examples being The Book of The Major Classes by Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi. And then began the documentation of the lives of many other historical figures from rulers to scholars who lived in the medieval Islamic world.

By the late Middle Ages, biographies became less church-oriented in Europe as biographies of kings , knights , and tyrants began to appear. Following Malory, the new emphasis on humanism during the Renaissance promoted a focus on secular subjects, such as artists and poets, and encouraged writing in the vernacular. Giorgio Vasari 's Lives of the Artists was the landmark biography focusing on secular lives.

Vasari made celebrities of his subjects, as the Lives became an early "bestseller". Two other developments are noteworthy: John Foxe 's Actes and Monuments , better known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs , was essentially the first dictionary of the biography in Europe, followed by Thomas Fuller 's The History of the Worthies of England , with a distinct focus on public life. Influential in shaping popular conceptions of pirates, A General History of the Pyrates , by Charles Johnson, is the prime source for the biographies of many well-known pirates. The American biography followed the English model, incorporating Thomas Carlyle 's view that biography was a part of history.

Carlyle asserted that the lives of great human beings were essential to understanding society and its institutions. While the historical impulse would remain a strong element in early American biography, American writers carved out a distinct approach. What emerged was a rather didactic form of biography, which sought to shape the individual character of a reader in the process of defining national character. The first modern biography, and a work which exerted considerable influence on the evolution of the genre, was James Boswell 's The Life of Samuel Johnson , a biography of lexicographer and man-of-letters Samuel Johnson published in Itself an important stage in the development of the modern genre of biography, it has been claimed to be the greatest biography written in the English language.

Boswell's work was unique in its level of research, which involved archival study, eye-witness accounts and interviews, its robust and attractive narrative, and its honest depiction of all aspects of Johnson's life and character - a formula which serves as the basis of biographical literature to this day. Biographical writing generally stagnated during the 19th century - in many cases there was a reversal to the more familiar hagiographical method of eulogizing the dead, similar to the biographies of saints produced in Medieval times.

A distinction between mass biography and literary biography began to form by the middle of the century, reflecting a breach between high culture and middle-class culture. However, the number of biographies in print experienced a rapid growth, thanks to an expanding reading public. This revolution in publishing made books available to a larger audience of readers.

In addition, affordable paperback editions of popular biographies were published for the first time. Periodicals began publishing a sequence of biographical sketches. Autobiographies became more popular, as with the rise of education and cheap printing, modern concepts of fame and celebrity began to develop. Autobiographies were written by authors, such as Charles Dickens who incorporated autobiographical elements in his novels and Anthony Trollope , his Autobiography appeared posthumously, quickly becoming a bestseller in London [8] , philosophers, such as John Stuart Mill , churchmen — John Henry Newman — and entertainers — P.

Human behavior would be explained through Darwinian theories. The development of psychoanalysis led to a more penetrating and comprehensive understanding of the biographical subject, and induced biographers to give more emphasis to childhood and adolescence. Clearly these psychological ideas were changing the way biographies were written, as a culture of autobiography developed, in which the telling of one's own story became a form of therapy.

British critic Lytton Strachey revolutionized the art of biographical writing with his work Eminent Victorians , consisting of biographies of four leading figures from the Victorian era: