History.org: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation's Official History and Citizenship Website
Project support for this volume was provided by: Discount offer available for first-time customers only. With contributions from donors, Library of America preserves and celebrates a vital part of our cultural heritage for generations to come. Four Centuries of Immigrant Writing hardcover Foreword by Pete Hamill Nearly selections by writers who traveled from over 40 different countries to American locales as diverse as seventeenth-century Jamestown and modern-day Los Angeles More.
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- Summary | The Integration of Immigrants into American Society | The National Academies Press.
Related Books Isaac Bashevis Singer: The Collected Stories 3-volume boxed set. A Literary Anthology paperback. Each new tribe that came to this Promised Land brought the burden of being despised, subjugated, oppressed, with them. They were finally above someone else in a social hierarchy. They were not at the bottom anymore.
But to be above requires somone else to be below. Cruelty as a way of life was born. When we noted that the despised of England hated the newly arrived despised of France hated the newly arrived despised of Germany and so on, not to mentions natives, blacks, and Asians, in an endless vicious circle, we are also saying: America was learning to be cruel, by forever constructing greater heirachies to seize the fruits of a Promised Land. But greater hierarchies require greater cruelty to climb up, too.
And the irony is that all this is what the despised came to America to escape. What was really happening here, in more modern terms? An Irish mutt bastard moved into the neighbourhood? Punching down began to be institutionalized and normalized. Cruelty was becoming a way of life and a norm. Tribe after tribe of the despised fled to a Promised Land, but each one demanded their position above the last, having never had anything before. So no mechanisms ever really developed to allow the Promised Land to be shared wisely, well, or reasonably.
Now, American leaders tried to intervene every now and then. So they never really said: What do we all really have in common, us Americans? We are the despised and mocked of history. Its outcasts and its exiles. This is what unites us! Let us stop punching down, then. Otherwise, what have we really learned? We are only repeating the very history of cruelty that we tried to escape from. Each new wave, trying to rise above the next, built a world even more cruel than the old one.
Punching down, down, down, endlessly.
So, today, here we are. Punching down has become a national institution, a norm, and a way of life. We are punching all the way down to our little five years olds. We are punching down to the poorest. Education cost a fortune? Too bad, take out debt. We are punching down to our young people. In , blacks were just 2. Ethnic and racial diversity resulting from immigration is no longer limited to a few states and cities that have histories of absorbing immigrants. Today, new immigrants are moving throughout the country, including into areas that have not witnessed a large influx of immigrants for centuries.
This new pattern has changed the landscape of immigration. The states with the fastest growth rates of immigrant population today are primarily in the South. The presence of racial- and religious-minority immigrants in new localities and in nonmetropolitan areas raises new challenges of integration and incorporation for many communities and small towns that are unaccustomed to substantial minority and immigrant populations.
At the same time, there are many localities in new destination areas that have adopted welcoming strategies to encourage immigrant workers and foster their integration into the community. The result is that many neighborhoods are more diverse now than they have ever been, and the number of all-white census tracts has fallen.
Yet racial segregation is still prevalent throughout the country, with blacks experiencing the most segregation from whites, followed by segregation of Hispanics and then Asians from the non-Hispanic white population. While three-quarters of all immigrants are Christian, immigration is also bringing new religious diversity to the United States. Four percent of the foreign-born are Muslim, and although Muslim immigrants are doing better than the national average in education and income, they do report encountering high levels of prejudice and discrimination.
Religious diversity is especially notable among Asian immigrants, with sizable numbers of Hindus, Buddhists, and those who do not identify with any religion. Marriages between the native-born and immigrants appear to have increased significantly over time.
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Today, about one of every seven new marriages is an interracial or interethnic marriage, more than twice the rate a generation ago. Perhaps as a result, the social and cultural boundaries between native-born and foreign-born populations in the United States are much less clearly defined than in the past. Moreover, second and third generation individuals from immigrant minority populations are far more likely to marry higher generation native-born partners than are their first generation counterparts.
These intermarriages also contribute to the increase in mixed-race Americans. An additional important effect of intermarriage is on family networks. Integration of immigrants and their descendants is a major contributor to this large degree of intermixing. In the future, the lines between what Americans today think of as separate.
Indeed, immigrants become Americans not just by integrating into our neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces, but also into our families. The panel was handicapped in its work by the dearth of available longitudinal data to measure immigrant integration. This is a long-standing problem that has become increasingly critical as immigration to the United States has increased and as immigrants have become dispersed throughout the country. The panel made several specific recommendations for data collection that are outlined in detail in Chapter These include the following:.
The United States prides itself on being a nation of immigrants, and the country has a long history of successfully absorbing people from across the globe. The integration of immigrants and their children contributes to our economic vitality and our vibrant and ever changing culture. We have offered opportunities to immigrants and their children to better themselves and to be fully incorporated into our society and in exchange immigrants have become Americans - embracing an American identity and citizenship, protecting our country through service in our military, fostering technological innovation, harvesting its crops, and enriching everything from the nation's cuisine to its universities, music, and art.
Are new immigrants and their children being well integrated into American society, within and across generations? Do current policies and practices facilitate their integration? How is American society being transformed by the millions of immigrants who have arrived in recent decades? To answer these questions, this new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine summarizes what we know about how immigrants and their descendants are integrating into American society in a range of areas such as education, occupations, health, and language.
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Looking for other ways to read this? Front Matter Page 1 Share Cite. The Integration of Immigrants into American Society. The National Academies Press. Summary The United States prides itself on being a nation of immigrants, and the nation has a long history of successfully absorbing people from across the globe. Page 2 Share Cite. Page 3 Share Cite. Education Despite large differences in starting points among the first generation, there has been strong intergenerational progress in educational attainment. Page 4 Share Cite. Employment and Earnings Immigrant men have higher employment rates than the second and higher generations.
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Occupations The occupational distributions of the first and second generations reveal a picture of intergenerational improvement similar to that for education and earnings. Page 5 Share Cite.
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Poverty Immigrants are more likely to be poor than the native-born, even though their labor force participation rates are higher and they work longer hours on average. Residential Integration Over time most immigrants and their descendants gradually become less segregated from the general population of native-born whites and more dispersed across regions, cities, communities, and neighborhoods.
Page 6 Share Cite. Language Language diversity in the United States has grown as the immigrant population has increased and become more varied. Page 7 Share Cite. Health Foreign-born immigrants have better infant, child, and adult health outcomes than the U. Crime Increased prevalence of immigrants is associated with lower crime rates—the opposite of what many Americans fear. Page 8 Share Cite. Page 9 Share Cite. Page 10 Share Cite. Race The panel found that patterns of immigrant integration are shaped by race. Naturalization Rates Birthright citizenship is one of the most powerful mechanisms of formal political and civic inclusion in the United States.
Page 11 Share Cite. Page 12 Share Cite. Page 13 Share Cite. These include the following: That the federal government collect data on generational status by adding a question on birthplace of parents to the American Community Survey, in order to measure the integration of the second generation.
That the Current Population Survey test and if possible add a question on legal statuses at entry or at present, leaving those in undocumented status to be identified by process of elimination, and that other major national surveys with large numbers of immigrants also add a question of this type to identify legal status. That any legislation to regularize immigrant status in the future for the undocumented include a component to survey those who apply and to follow them to understand the effects of legalization.
That administrative data held by U. Citizenship and Immigration Services on visa type be linked to census and other government data, as other countries have done, and that such data be made available to researchers in secure data enclaves.