Growing concern that public health laws may be inadequate to the challenges that confront public health practitioners has led to adoption of a Healthy People objective for improved laws and policies. It has also led to concerted efforts to strengthen the legal foundation for public health practice. In this editorial, the authors present a framework for collaborative research, analysis, and development to strengthen public health laws, skill in applying laws, and law-related information resources.
Strengthening the Legal Foundation for Public Health Practice: A Framework for Action
Here we outline a conceptual framework for strengthening the legal foundation for public health practice and improving the understanding and use of law as a public health tool. The legal foundation for public health practice comprises at least 3 elements: Legal authorities—constitutional and statutory laws, regulations, administrative rules, and case law—enable government health agencies and private health organizations to take defined actions.
Healthy People objective recommends that public health laws be examined and improved to meet evolving health threats. Applied research and development are needed to strengthen the legal foundation for public health practice. Standards should be developed for legal authorities, skills, and information resources. The CDC and its partners are working toward consensus standards for legal authorities—including a model state public health law—and for law-related competencies and information.
Research and analysis will identify existing gaps. Finally, developmental work will fill these gaps through collaborative design of new authorities and training programs and dissemination of law-related information to interested individuals and organizations. Perhaps the most exciting outcome of discussions in this area is formation of the Public Health Law Collaborative.
Among other early actions, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers has surveyed its members to learn how they access and use legal information. A national public health law conference will be held in Atlanta, Ga, on June 18 and 19, Additional work is planned in the areas outlined above, including the development of tools to assess existing legal authorities, training programs, and a spectrum of information resources.
The provisions of the Law on Companies apply to the forms of business activities that are established and operating in accordance with special laws. A company is a legal entity engaged in a business activity for the purpose of profit generation. A company shall acquire legal personality by registration in accordance with the law governing registration of economic operators.
- The Legal Framework for the Company Foundation.
- Legal Framework.
- Strengthening the Legal Foundation for Public Health Practice: A Framework for Action.
Limited liability company members shall freely regulate their mutual relations and their relations with the company, unless provided otherwise by Law. A joint-stock company shall be a company the share capital of which is divided into shares held by one or more shareholders. A joint-stock company shall be liable for its obligations with its entire assets.
Legal Foundations: The Framework of Law | www.aloemixers.com
A joint-stock company shall be public one that issued the securities and non-public. The founding shareholders of a company shall sign its Memorandum of association and its initial Articles of Association. The Articles of Association regulate the management of the company and other issues in accordance with the law.
The Articles of Association, including any amendments and modifications thereof, shall be passed by the General Meeting by a simple majority of the total voting power, unless a higher majority is provided by the Articles of Association. An entrepreneur shall be a natural person with full capacity who carries on a business activity for the purpose of profit generation and is registered as such accordance with the law.
An entrepreneur may entrust management duties to a natural person with full capacity, to manager. A manager must be employed by an entrepreneur.
An entrepreneur may decide to continue carrying on a business activity in the form of a company. A representative office of a foreign company means a separate organisational unit of a foreign company that may carry out preliminary and preparatory work leading to the conclusion of a transaction by that company. A representative office shall not have legal personality and may only enter into transactions relating to its current operations.