Because one of the effects of the sacrament is to absolve the recipient of any sins not previously absolved through the sacrament of penance , only an ordained priest or bishop may administer the sacrament. An extensive account of the teaching of the Catholic Church on Anointing of the Sick is given in Catechism of the Catholic Church , — The chief Biblical text concerning anointing of the sick is James 5: Let him bring in the priests of the church and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer of faith shall save the sick man. And the Lord shall raise him up: In the past, the usual name of the sacrament in official documents of the Catholic Church was Extreme Unction meaning, Final Anointing , a name attached to it when it was administered only to those on the point of death.
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Peter Lombard died is the first writer known to have used the term,  which did not become the usual name in the West till towards the end of the twelfth century, and never became current in the East. The sacrament has also been known by various other names in Western Christianity throughout the years, including: In the Eastern Church it is technically known as euchelaion i. Catholic canon law indicates who may receive the sacrament: A priest may, on the basis of his pastoral judgment, administer the sacrament numerous times in cases of old age or chronic illness.
The sacrament of anointing can be administered to an individual whether at home, in a hospital or institution, or in church. Several sick persons may be anointed within the rite, especially if the celebration takes place in a church or hospital. The celebration may also take place during a Catholic Mass.
Anointing of the Sick in the Catholic Church
When administered to those on the point of death, the sacraments of Penance , Anointing of the Sick and Viaticum Holy Communion administered to someone who is dying are sometimes mistakenly called the last rites. What in the judgment of the Catholic Church are properly described as the last rites are Viaticum , and the ritual prayers of Commendation of the Dying, and Prayers for the Dead.
The normal order of administration of these three sacraments to the dying is: There are four general grants of indulgence, which are meant to encourage the faithful to infuse a Christian spirit into the actions of their daily lives and to strive for perfection of charity. These indulgences are partial, and their worth therefore depends on the fervour with which the person performs the recommended actions:.
Among the particular grants, which, on closer inspection, will be seen to be included in one or more of the four general grants, especially the first, the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum draws special attention  to four activities for which a plenary indulgence can be gained on any day, though only once a day:. A plenary indulgence may also be gained on some occasions, which are not everyday occurrences. They include but are not limited to:. Special indulgences are also granted on occasions of particular spiritual significance such as a jubilee year  or the centenary or similar anniversary of an event such as the apparition of Our Lady of Lourdes.
Of particular significance is the plenary indulgence attached to the Apostolic Blessing that a priest is to impart when giving the sacraments to a person in danger of death, and which, if no priest is available, the Church grants to any rightly disposed Christian at the moment of death, on condition that that person was accustomed to say some prayers during life.
In this case the Church itself makes up for the three conditions normally required for a plenary indulgence: In the early church, especially from the third century on, ecclesiastic authorities allowed a confessor or a Christian awaiting martyrdom to intercede for another Christian in order to shorten the other's canonical penance. When these lapsi later wished to once again be admitted to the Christian community, some of the lapsi presented a second libellus purported to bear the signature of some martyr or confessor who, it was held, had the spiritual prestige to reaffirm individual Christians.
Bishop Cyprian of Carthage insisted that none of the lapsi be admitted without sincere repentance.
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The Council of Epaone in witnesses to the rise of the practice of replacing severe canonical penances with a new milder penance: Any who objected to the new arrangement was to observe the much longer ancient penance. The sixth century saw the development in Ireland of Penitentials , handbooks for confessors in assigning penance. The Penitential of Cummean counseled a priest to take into consideration in imposing a penance, the penitent's strengths and weaknesses. Some penances could be commuted through payments or substitutions.
It became customary to commute penances to less demanding works, such as prayers, alms, fasts and even the payment of fixed sums of money depending on the various kinds of offenses tariff penances. While the sanctions in early penitentials, such as that of Gildas, were primarily acts of mortification or in some cases excommunication, the inclusion of fines in later compilations derive from secular law. By the tenth century, some penances were not replaced but merely reduced in connection with pious donations, pilgrimages, and similar meritorious works. Then, in the 11th and 12th centuries, the recognition of the value of these works began to become associated not so much with canonical penance but with remission of the temporal punishment due to sin.
A particular form of the commutation of penance was practiced at the time of the Crusades when the confessor required the penitent to go on a Crusade in place of some other penance. Theologians looked to God's mercy, the value of the Church's prayers, and the merits of the saints as the basis on which indulgences could be granted. Around the Dominican Hugh of St-Cher proposed the idea of a "treasury" at the Church's disposal, consisting of the infinite merits of Christ and the immeasurable abundance of the saints' merits, a thesis that was demonstrated by great scholastics such as Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas and remains the basis for the theological explanation of indulgences.
Indulgences were intended to offer remission of the temporal punishment due to sin equivalent to that someone might obtain by performing a canonical penance for a specific period of time. As Purgatory became more prominent in Christian thinking, the idea developed that the term of indulgences related to remission of time in Purgatory. Indeed, many Late Medieval indulgences were for terms well over a human lifetime, reflecting this belief.
For several centuries it was debated by theologians whether penance or purgatory was the currency of the indulgences granted, and the church did not settle the matter definitively, for example avoiding doing so at the Council of Trent.
Indulgences became increasingly popular in the Middle Ages as a reward for displaying piety and doing good deeds, though, doctrinally speaking, the Church stated that the indulgence was only valid for temporal punishment for sins already forgiven in the Sacrament of Confession. The faithful asked that indulgences be given for saying their favourite prayers, doing acts of devotion, attending places of worship, and going on pilgrimage ; confraternities wanted indulgences for putting on performances and processions; associations demanded that their meetings be rewarded with indulgences.
Good deeds included charitable donations of money for a good cause, and money thus raised was used for many righteous causes, both religious and civil; building projects funded by indulgences include churches, hospitals, leper colonies , schools, roads, and bridges. However, in the later Middle Ages growth of considerable abuses occurred. Greedy commissaries sought to extract the maximum amount of money for each indulgence.
Many of these quaestores exceeded official Church doctrine, whether in avarice or ignorant zeal, and promised rewards like salvation from eternal damnation in return for money. With the permission of the Church, indulgences also became a way for Catholic rulers to fund expensive projects, such as Crusades and cathedrals, by keeping a significant portion of the money raised from indulgences in their lands.
The Fourth Lateran Council suppressed some abuses connected with indulgences, spelling out, for example, that only a one-year indulgence would be granted for the consecration of churches and no more than a days indulgence for other occasions. The Council also stated that "Catholics who have girded themselves with the cross for the extermination of the heretics, shall enjoy the indulgences and privileges granted to those who go in defense of the Holy Land. Very soon these limits were widely exceeded.
False documents were circulated with indulgences surpassing all bounds: An engraving by Israhel van Meckenem of the Mass of Saint Gregory contained a "bootlegged" indulgence of 20, years; one of the copies of this plate not the one illustrated, but also from the s was altered in a later state to increase it to 45, years. The indulgences applied each time a specified collection of prayers - in this case seven each of the Creed , Our Father , and Hail Mary - were recited in front of the image.
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The scandalous conduct of the "pardoners" was an immediate occasion of the Protestant Reformation. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The aggressive marketing practices of Johann Tetzel in promoting this cause provoked Martin Luther to write his Ninety-Five Theses , condemning what he saw as the purchase and sale of salvation. In Thesis 28 Luther objected to a saying attributed to Tetzel: Yet if Tetzel overstated the matter in regard to indulgences for the dead , his teaching on indulgences for the living was pure.
German Catholic historian of the Papacy, Ludwig von Pastor explains: Above all, a most clear distinction must be made between indulgences for the living and those for the dead. As regards indulgences for the living, Tetzel always taught pure doctrine. Dec 04, Sep 23, Elena Graf wants to read. The Professor and the Madman: Dec 10, Elena Graf and 7 other people liked T.
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