When Said refers to the West, he means primarily nineteenth- and twen- tieth-century Britain and France, and he subsequently extended his argu- ment to the United States. The scholar virtually ignores other European nations with a strong orientological tradition, such as Germany, the Netherlands, Hungary, and Russia.
As for the Orient, Said is deliberately vague. Bourgeois orientology entirely subordinates the study of the East to the colonial politics of the imperialist powers. Some object that those who study the East are not ipso facto hostile to the object of their interest. Indeed, it has not been unusual for Europeans who devoted their careers to the East, whether as academics or administrators, to yield to its charms.
Robert Kaplan took a similar tack in the s in his book The Arabists, when he argued that, far from being hostile to the Near East, its specialists at Foggy Bottom were dangerously sympa- thetic to the region. But earlier works explained that Europeans saw Asia in a much more pos- itive light, as a source of wonder or wisdom. While he acknowledges that since an- tiquity the Orient had on occasion menaced the Occident, Baudet is more interested in the mythology of the unspoiled, premodern East.
They were also quite ready to admire the East for its sagacity, as Raymond Schwab explains in his classic La Renaissance orientale The most obvious candidate for their scrutiny has been the rich literature about the mid-nineteenth century tsarist wars in the Caucasus Mountains. Bestuzhev Marlinskii , and Leo Tolstoy all either served or traveled in the region, and their works bear a strong imprint of the exotic campaign. Not long after Orientalism saw the light of day, Bernard Lewis criticized the book for ig- noring the German tradition of Oriental scholarship.
For Germans, there was clearly no inherent link between knowledge and power as far as the Ori- ent was concerned. More generally, Russian views of Asia have always been complex. Yet there were many others who saw Asia in a more favorable light. A forum on the pages of Kritika underscored this problem. The dis- cussion took as its starting point an earlier article by Nathaniel Knight in Slavic Review.
Ostroumov would seem to illustrate the Orientalist thesis. In a sense, both Knight and Khaleed are right: It is impossible to reduce Rus- sian scholars of Asia to a single archetype. Many Russian orien- tologists—but by no means all—were sympathetic and respectful of the nations they studied. Petersburg, Kazan, Mos- cow, and other centers of scholarship about the East tended to be relatively nonjudgmental, especially when compared to their nineteenth-century Western European contemporaries. An added wrinkle is the fact that many Russians have been conscious of their own Asian heritage.
Asia, which made the Orient both self and other. The East of Xerxes or of Christ? Russians who opposed western European culture could imagine kinship with one or the other for similar reasons. Russian efforts to explore, study, and understand the East often have been directly linked to imperial aims.
List of Orientalist artists
Paintings, prints, music, opera, and the decorative arts are also important sources for un- derstanding how Russians saw the East. Can we speak of a Russian Orientalism? This book endeavors to answer the question by examining attitudes to Asia during the Imperial era: Russians looked at the East through many lenses. This book focuses on two of them, orientology vostokovedenie and culture. To keep the story clear, it highlights representative individuals rather than attempting to pro- vide an encyclopedic account of everyone of importance. This project is an exploration of imaginary geography.
This book therefore considers the East broadly, extending the horizon to all Orien- tal regions that interested Russians, including Inner and East Asia.
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Russians have never been of one mind about Asia. Some of these Slavs eventually came to pay tribute to the Khazars, a more powerful nation of nomadic Inner Asian origin that controlled the region around the lower Volga River from the seventh through the ninth centuries. The elite eventually adopted Judaism, while much of the general popula- tion converted to Christianity and Islam. Despite having Scandinavian leaders, in its earliest days this young entity remained subject to the Khazars.
During most of its existence, for much of Rus the primary external threat came from the steppe. Over the centuries, wave after wave of Inner Asian groups swept westward, occupying the southern Russian steppe until being forced out in turn by a more powerful nomadic alliance. Greek Herodotus fa- mously described in his History.
Cumans or Qipchaks , successively controlled the lands on its southern frontier. A closer look at the Chroni- cle, however, suggests that the relationship between the forest and the steppe was not invariably hostile. In fact, they were much more often at peace than on the march. There would be many other occasions for joint operations and, as Kiev began to weaken, it was not unusual for rival princes to enlist Polovtsian support in their frequent internecine struggles. By the s, some Russian princes may have well been mostly Turkic by blood. Although the Pechenegs and Polovtsy constituted a similar challenge to the Kievan Rus, the chronicles portray them in a strikingly different light.
By stark contrast, from the very beginning the Polovtsy were invariably seen as the equivalent of a biblical scourge. Even if their beliefs at the time were shamanist, the chroniclers increasingly described them in the language of Byzantine anti-Islamic polemics. According to the book of Genesis, Ishmael, the son of the Biblical patriarch Abraham and his concubine Hagar, had been banished to the desert as a boy. Might it not become us, brothers, To begin in the diction of yore the stern tale of the campaign of Igor, Igor son of Sviatoslav?
Like the roughly contemporaneous French Chanson de Roland, it tells of an ill-fated clash with the godless other. And, just as in the Chanson, the Igor song is based on a relatively minor engagement that was poetically transformed into an event of epic importance. Igor Sviatoslavich was a junior prince on the steppe frontier. Like a num- ber of other highborn Russians at the time, Igor had family ties with the Asian nomads, and he fought together with them against his dynastic rivals. As they marched into the steppe, some wavered when a solar eclipse, a traditional ill omen, darkened the skies.
The prince rallied his troops, and they carried on.
- Ivan Kramskoy (Illustrations of The Daughter of an Empress).
- Man On The Scene, Best Of?
Fortune initially seemed to favor Igor, and he easily cap- tured a Polovtsian camp. But his success proved to be short-lived when, the following dawn, with his men still groggy from their postvictory rev- elry, the enemy launched a surprise attack. Along with his son, the commander became a prisoner of the Polovtsian Khan Konchak. By the same token, the Song does not portray the Polovtsy as a diabol- ical force.
Even the Polovtsy buckled before them, and their khans appealed to the Russian princes for help. Poorly organized, fractious, and hobbled by confused lines of com- mand, the allies proved to be no match for the Tatars. They were thor- oughly routed when they joined battle later that spring on the banks of the Kalka River near the Sea of Azov in southeastern Russia. These Tatars were of course the Mongols, the formidable nomadic con- federation that Genghis Khan had crafted from the traditionally unruly horsemen of the eastern Inner Asian steppe at the turn of the thirteenth century.
Having already routed armies in northern China, Persia, and many other lands in-between, their brief foray into southern Russia in was only a reconnaissance. The Islamic Bulgar nation on the Volga fell the following year, and its entire population was massacred. The northeastern Russian principalities were next. The next year they turned their attention on southern Russia, razing town after town until in December the ancient capital of Kiev was also sacked.
Novgorod to the north was spared by the fortuitous intervention of a spring thaw, but its ruler, Prince Alexan- der Nevsky, wisely pledged submission to the khan to spare his domain from the onslaught. Unlike other Mongol khans in China, Persia, and cen- tral Asia, Batu refrained from occupying his Russian possessions. The for- est held little appeal to the steppe nomads, while the relative poverty and backwardness of the principalities further lessened their attraction.
Since the khans were mostly interested in deriving income from their Slavic provinces, they hardly discouraged trade. Despite its conversion to Islam in the early fourteenth century, the Golden Horde resolutely main- tained the steppe tradition of religious tolerance. Indeed, it was under the Mongol yoke that the church became the great champion of Russian national identity. At the same time, since the khans practiced polygamy, they often had many potential heirs. How did Russians see their Asian overlords at the time?
The answer is surprisingly complicated. The Tale of the Destruction of Riazan is typical of the genre. And through- out the city, men, women, and children were also hacked to pieces. And others were drowned in the river. And in the city not one remained among the living. And this all happened because of our sins. In a way, the monks were right. Instead, it is itself a form of resistance to oppression. It has, however, had the regrettable result of misleading historians. Comparisons of different accounts over time of the same event, such as the Battle of Ku- likovo, show that this was a relatively gradual process, which reached its apogee in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
The Chinese had long dealt with the Tatars and came to employ their name as a generic label for their pastoral neigh- bors across the Great Wall. While Genghis Khan largely obliterated the tribe in the late twelfth century, the label stuck, and it would eventually also be used by Arabs, Indians, and Europeans to describe all Mongolian nomads. In the West the term had a particularly ominous connotation, since it was easily confused with Tartarus, the infernal region of classical mythology.
At least through the six- teenth century, Muscovite diplomacy with its Muslim neighbors followed Mongolian practice. And, as was certainly not the case in such Catholic kingdoms as Spain, in choos- ing marriage partners among the upper class, caste generally trumped race as long as one converted to Orthodoxy. They included distinguished names such as Iusupov, Kurakin, Dashkov, Kochubei, Ushakov, and Karamzin, among a host of others. When the young poetess Anna Gorenko adopted a pseudonym at the turn of the twentieth century, she readily took the name of one her Tatar maternal ancestors, Akhmatova.
While the church increasingly championed hostility toward the Tatars, secular views tended to be more benign. But there were glimpses of other easts, including the Near East, India, and eventually China.
Some of these impressions came from the chronographs, or compilations of various his- tories of the world, that were based on similar Byzantine digests. Before increased contacts with the West in the , one of the few visual representations of the known world in Muscovy also originated in Byzantium: However, these did not tend to have a wide readership at the time. Daniil wrote his khozhenie as a Baedeker for Orthodox faithful and therefore quite naturally focused on sites impor- tant to Christians. At the same time, his descriptions of the long journey also made it an exciting adventure story.
Fifteenth-century Muscovites were hardly ignorant about India, but they only knew it as a far-off fairy-tale wonderland from such Byzantine sources as The Tale of the Indian Kingdom and the Christian Topogra- phy. These stories left their mark on folklore. Wherever I went, many followed me, curious at seeing a white man.
A miraculous in- tervention by a kindly Muslim notable saved him from apostasy, and he proceeded further inland to the Bahmani capital of Bidar. Nikitin spent a year and a half in the city and its environs. Here he saw the Muslim court in all its splendor, with its seven-gated palace built of lav- ishly gilded carved stone. Meanwhile, nobles were conveyed in silver litters preceded by twenty horses in golden harnesses. He described their beliefs in some detail, including the many buts Buddhas, i. Like many travelers to the Orient, Nikitin considered the women to be highly promiscuous: They love to en- tertain white men.
As he lost track of the Orthodox calendar, Nikitin began to observe Islamic prac- tices, including the month-long Ramadan fast. Meanwhile, he also took to praying in a curious blend of Arabic, Turkic, and Slavonic, even conclud- ing his tale in this macaronic language: God the blessed, the blessed Lord, Jesus Spirit of God!
Peace be with you! There is no God but Allah the Creator. Praise be to God, Glory to God! In the name of God, merciful and gracious! Moreover, Nikitin died before reaching his hometown. But the account that survived him was a literary success. After Ivan the Terrible conquered the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan in the s, the tsar counted growing numbers of Tatars and other Turkic subjects within the expanding borders of his realm. Others also traveled to Asian lands, especially to Turkey and Persia.
Most of the Muscovite texts about the Orient that survive were writ- ten by the clergy. Instead, he continues by disparaging their hygiene, explaining that they supposedly wet their excrement and drink the liquid. Vladimir agrees that this is a disgusting habit. They include those of Saint John of Damascus, which appear to be the only relevant ones to have been translated into Russian before the seventeenth century.
In essence, Saint John argued that Muhammad was not a real prophet and that he advocated sexual license. Closer diplomatic and com- mercial contacts with the Abbasid Caliphate and other Muslim powers somewhat tempered Byzantine attitudes. Traditional Russian secular attitudes toward the East are more elusive, but byliny and folktales skazki offer some clues. Some tell of valiant exploits against Saracens, and others of cruel Turkish sultans.
India and China, however, are less menacing. References to the past only reinforced such notions, as one history aimed at a mass readership published in suggested when describing the Mongol invasion over six hundred years earlier: These people were terrible; they were ferocious in appearance and pitied no one.
As in Kievan times, frequent contact and intermarriage with neighbors on the southeastern frontier lessened the dis- tinctions between self and other. Accord- ing to the chronicles the monastic scribes kept, encounters were invari- ably hostile, and the Slavic inhabitants of the forest suffered an unending succession of raids and wars. This grim literature is deceptive, since the re- lationship between the forest and the steppe was not inherently or always antagonistic.
Symbiosis rather than struggle was the order of the day. Even the two and a half centuries of Mongol rule were more benign than the histories com- piled by churchmen in their wake would lead us to believe. The written evidence about attitudes to the East in the Muscovite era, however sketchy, likewise suggests antagonism, particularly to Islam. Meanwhile, what little Russians knew about Asia tended to come from Byzantium until the West exposed them to a more secular outlook. If the church did not portray the Muslim East in a favorable light, neither did it monopolize Russian attitudes.
More important, Russians were relatively late in developing a sense of national identity. In consequence, their sense of race tended to be much weaker than among western Europeans. It is no coincidence that the Russian noun for peasant, krestianin, comes from khristianin Christian. But this loyalty was to the triple-armed Orthodox version, not the simpler Latin one. The Catholic nemets western foreigner was just as alien as the Mus- lim basurman.
The German philosopher and mathe- matician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz had long been fascinated with China. Like many of his contemporaries, he had read the favorable accounts of Jesuits who por- trayed the Qing dynasty as the apotheosis of reason and toleration, and he came to see its civilization as the equivalent of his own.
The basic idea of the latter was hardly original. But if these Elizabethan explorers saw Muscovy as a potential commercial conduit, Leibniz envis- aged it as the channel for knowledge and wisdom.
Leibniz had long been a proponent of associations of learned men that, with the patronage of a monarch, would gather and dis- seminate knowledge for the betterment of humanity, like the Royal Soci- ety in London. Leibniz, who died in , did not live to see the establishment of the academy nor did Peter, who succumbed to illness in January Most glaring was the absence of much pedagogy. While there would be a secondary school, it was always a poor relation of the more illustrious research institution.
Eager to attract the Prussian polyglot, the academy offered him three possible chairs: Bayer chose the latter, and he would remain in Russia until his death in Many subsequent orientologists would follow in his steps, thereby contributing to an intellectual current whose ultimate outcome would be Eurasianism some two hundred years later. Peter had set up the Kunstkamer in in his Summer Palace, accord- ing to the custom of every self-respecting German prince of his day.
Peter continued to add to his various collections. One of the more valuable additions toward the end of his life was a group of manu- scripts he looted during his Persian expedition in As for Kehr, Russians have regarded his scholarly accomplishments somewhat more highly than those of Bayer.
None of these were published during his lifetime, although they would prove invaluable to scholars in the nineteenth century. Neither Bayer nor Kehr left a particularly deep imprint on Russian ori- entology. Aside from a handful of young interpreters whom Kehr taught at the College of Foreign Affairs, they had no students. Despite his remarkable talent for lan- guages, Bayer never even deigned to learn Russian.
The discipline of orientology would have to wait until the nineteenth century for more propitious circumstances. The unfortunate crew now faced a new peril as native Koriaks, who had only recently come under Russian rule, promptly took them prisoner. Since Dembei had already learned Koriak from his captors, the pair managed to converse with the help of an interpreter. Atlasov listened with great interest to tales of a fertile land rich in silver and gold, which he took to be India. The recent conquest of Kamchatka had brought Russia temptingly close to the archipelago, and the time seemed ripe to test the Dutch commercial stranglehold.
However, the tsar had no subjects who could speak Japanese. Peter met the castaway in January , and he immediately made plans to put his involuntary guest to work. On the same day the tsar decreed that Dembei would remain in Moscow and learn Russian. Once again, scholars are unsure whether any lessons were actually given.
But with the death of Demian Pomortsev three years later in , the courses came to an end, and it would take until the late nineteenth century for Japanese in- struction to be resumed at any academic institution in the capital. There were also foreigners who offered their services to the tsar.
One of the best sources abroad for Near East experts consisted of the Greeks, Serbs, Romanians, and other Orthodox nations then under Turk- ish rule. While many were willing to do so, others found the vigorous young monarchy of their Muscovite coreli- gionists more appealing. Chief among the latter was the Moldavian Prince Dimitrie Cantemir. Poet, satirist, and diplomat, Prince Antiokh Dmitrievich Kantemir was one of the leading lights of the Petrine Enlightenment.
His con- siderable talents ranged from the natural sciences, philosophy, and history to architecture and literature. And Turks still hold his musical composi- tions in high regard. It was not a harsh sentence. Initially housed in the Moldavian princely palace, young Dimitrie took a distinctly different path by devoting his enforced idleness to more cerebral pursuits.
During the two decades Cantemir spent on the Bosporus as a young man assiduously pursuing his studies, his outlook was accord- ingly shaped by the three great intellectual legacies of Byzantium, the Ital- ian Renaissance, and Islam. The fullness and emptiness of heaven and earth wane and wax in the course of time.
How much truer is this of men. Stretching like a giant crescent from central Europe through the Near East and into northern Africa, their realm was one of the most formidable of its day. At the same time, a recent military campaign into central Europe that had taken Janissaries to the very gates of Vienna in ended disastrously with the Treaty of Karlowitz sixteen years later, effectively ending the Turkish military threat to Christendom.
Although Turkey opened the hostilities, Russia went on the offensive. Hoping to rely on the sympathies of their two Orthodox hospodars, Peter the Great marched his forces south into the Romanian principalities. While the other temporized, Cantemir threw his lot in with the tsar. When he confronted vastly larger Turkish forces on the Prut River three months later, Peter met with defeat and was forced to sue for peace.
As in Constantinople, Cantemir devoted much of his energy to scholarship. Some of his efforts focused on his homeland. The Berlin Academy of Sciences, which elected him to membership in , asked him to write a Description of Moldavia, and he began a Chronicle of Romanian Wallachians and Moldovans. Another treatise, A Study of the Nature of Monar- chy, called on Peter the Great to carry on his struggle with Turkey to as- sume his rightful place as the universal sovereign uniting East and West.
Published in Russ- ian two years later, it repeated many traditional Christian arguments against Islam: On the pretext of deeming his sources to have been inadequately cited, it refused to print the book. Encyclopedic in scope, with extensive biographical, geographical, re- ligious, and ethnographic notes, the History chronicled the Ottoman dynasty from its fourteenth-century origins until the early s. What set Cantemir apart was his ex- tensive and evenhanded reliance on Turkish chronicles, to the point of repeating their interpretation of confrontations with the Christian powers.
Of course, unlike the latter, in the eighteenth century the Ottoman Empire was still very much alive. However, as the prince stressed, it was already well into its dotage, and the end was utterly inescapable. Edward Gib- bon and Voltaire both relied on it for their works, and Byron mentioned the prince twice in his verse tale, Don Juan. The estates and the generous pension Peter had granted him enabled the exile to continue the life of a grandee. Above all, Peter relied on him for his knowledge of the Near East.
In , as the tsar began a campaign of conquest against Persia in the Caucasus, the prince joined him as a lead- ing counselor. By virtue of their ge- ography they had long had direct contact with the East. Historians of orientology in Russia therefore often attribute his initiatives in this regard as motivated by political and commercial aims.
Yuri Slezkine once remarked that seventeenth- century Muscovites had not shown much curiosity about the outside world. This was an equally important legacy of the Petrine dawn. I thought to sleep, my eyes barely shut for the night, When, with ears stopped, he did roar with all his might.
Oh, miracles of God! Who amongst my kin of yore Slept calmly, free from the khans and the hordes? And disturbed from my sleep amidst Bakhchisarai By tobacco smoke and cries. Is this not paradise? Among the more important guests of the tsarina and her current favorite, Count Aleksandr Dmitriev-Mamonov, were the French, British, and Austrian ministers to her court. Here the group halted for three months to await the spring thaw so that it could proceed downriver on the Dnieper.
Despite their still being some kilometers from the former khanate, to some the Orient already seemed very much in evidence. No less sump- tuous than their winter transport, seven gold and scarlet galleys unobtru- sively crewed by some three thousand oarsmen, guards, and attendants cruised majestically until the cataracts at Kaidak made further travel by river impossible. These spec- tacular displays of exotic militaria were more than a theatrical caprice. The French ambassador recalled a conver- sation he had had with the Austrian emperor on the eve of their entry into the Crimea.
Encamped just north of Perekop, the narrow isthmus that joins the peninsula to the mainland, the pair took a leisurely stroll in the warm twilight. Some camels passed in the distance. It is altogether a new page of history. As recently as the seventeenth century, Crimean Tatars had staged destructive raids deep into the Russian heartland. Vassals of the Ottoman Empire, they had remained a threat to the rich farmlands of the southern frontier until Catherine annexed their peninsula in During latter decades of the eighteenth cen- tury, Russian culture had taken a distinctly Grecophile turn.
The em- press and her travel companions all employed Asian tropes in their many letters and reminiscences of the trip. Military humiliation in the s would, of course, give the Crimea a distinctly dif- ferent connotation in the minds of subsequent generations of Russians. And it is in this sense, as an object of whimsical curiosity, that Russians came to see the East more generally during the century of their rapid Westernization.
Catherine could imagine traveling from her capital on the Neva to the Crimea as a journey from Europe into Asia. Petersburg, despite its distinctly Western architecture, struck him as quasi-Oriental. Con- tinental boundaries were a case in point. Thus, from antiquity until the eighteenth century, Asia was variously believed to begin at the Don or Volga rivers, or even farther west. This would begin to change when Catherine the Great seized the throne in a palace coup in Nevertheless, the Catherinian age marked the beginnings of a more so- phisticated understanding of the East.
After her reign, as before, the two never met, or they failed to recognize each other. Without question the man most responsible for shaping the attitudes of Catherinian St. Petersburg about the East was the French philosophe Voltaire. Meanwhile, Catherine gained an enthu- siastic propagandist who helped burnish her reputation in Europe as the model enlightened despot.
Disillu- sioned with the politics and culture of his native France, Voltaire saw in the Chinese many of the virtues that seemed to be lacking in his compatriots. First, he profoundly respected the Con- fucian ethic. At times commercial disputes, bor- der clashes, and competition for the loyalty of nomadic Kalmyks and Zun- gars severely strained relations between St. Early in her reign, Catherine even contemplated war with her Eastern neigh- bor. Le Roi de la Chi, i, i, i, i, i, i, ne Quand il a bien bu, u, u, u, u, u, u, Fait une plaisante mi, i, i, i, i, ne! Thus her comic opera Fevei, originally written as a didactic story for her grandsons Alexander and Con- stantine in , described a good ruler of Chinese ancestry.
Catherine was not alone in playing with Eastern motifs in their prose and poetry. On the Northern throne, we see Confucius. I assiduously endeavored to ensure that all justice throughout my realm was fair, that all people were contented and tranquil, and that the state grew stronger.
In he published a translation of Da Xue, a Confucian text that stresses the obli- gations of the ruler toward his subjects. Kitaishchina, as chinoiserie was known in Russian, had already made its appearance at the turn of the eighteenth century. Yet it was entirely in keeping with the northern European taste at the time for the Baroque exotic.
The statesman Count Jacob Bruce, for one, amassed an impressive collection of over two hundred Chinese pieces. Porcelain production boomed as entrepreneurs like Francis Gardner opened private factories to help meet growing demand. Both Rinaldi and Cameron were largely following the conventions of the jardin anglo- chinois, a style of landscape design that had been developed in England in the mid-eighteenth century as a reaction against the strict geometric for- malism of French parks.
Here is a theatre, there a swing, Beyond, an Eastern pleasure-dome. Hark how the Muses on Parnassus sing While creatures fated for the hunt do roam. While attitudes toward the Near East were more ambivalent, even then the images it evoked in St. Meanwhile, traditional hostility toward the faith tended to fade in light of the diminished threat posed by the Ottomans and other Muslim foes on the imperial frontier.
Nevertheless, the empress carefully distinguished be- tween the Ottomans, who ruled despotically and had destroyed Byzan- tium, and their religion. There is a happy ending, as the hero ultimately succeeds in his quest. This is my wish: That he who has any objection may express it freely.
It would take some time for Russians to grasp this truth. However, as educated Russian soci- ety became more thoroughly westernized, its interest in the East began to be aroused. Like all Romanov sovereigns, Catherine had military, diplomatic, and commercial dealings with the Asian powers on her borders, such as the Ottomans, Persians, and Chinese. Like the intellectu- als of the West she could praise the Chinese for their adherence to reason and their banishment of fanaticism, and for establishing the most durable empire in history.
At the same time, as a political head of state, she could declare her aggressive ambition to have one day broken the insolence of China. Petersburg than anything Ilarion Rossokhin could ever expect to write. As Widmer suggests, academic study of Asia hardly made an impact on Catherinian thought.
Throughout the eighteenth century, the discipline, such as it was, remained a foreign import, largely alien to intellectual life in St. At the same time, they had no doubt that Russia was fundamentally distinct from Asia. It was only in the next century, as many began to question the relationship with Europe, that at- titudes toward Asia likewise became more ambivalent. Within three weeks of landing at Alexandria, his troops routed Mamluk forces at the Battle of the Pyramids and were soon in possession of Cairo.
The whole continent inclines to the East. Along with others, these writers stressed the primacy of emotion, intuition, spontaneity, and the mystical. In rebelling against Hellenism, the German Romantics also looked to al- ternative sources of wisdom, especially to their own medieval past and the East.
The Orient was particularly appealing. He did have antecedents, such as Gavrila Derzhavin, Nikolai Novikov, and Empress Catherine II, who had already invoked the East with their quills in the late eighteenth century. For one thing, their biographies bore many resemblances. Slavists often cringe at comparing their verse too closely, and Pushkin would eventually come to disown the Englishman as a model. The tsar took a shine to little Abraham.
You are a clever enough fellow in your own right. According to the imprecise geography of the day, Africa was almost as Oriental as Asia. Meanwhile, many of the characteristics the Romantic imagination considered to be typically Oriental—unbridled passion, savagery, indolence, and despotism —were both southern and eastern. This imprecise demarcation between east and south was doubly true in the Russian mind. A glance at the map showed that Constantinople lay west of St. To Pushkin, there- fore, his African blood was quasi-Oriental—as the noun he used to label his great-grandfather, arap, suggests.
As a result, the lad could also indulge in his own pursuits, such as writing verse, in which he proved to be remark- ably gifted. His dreams of joining them when he completed his studies in were dashed when his father pointed out that he could not afford the expense of supporting a cav- alry subaltern and proposed a distinctly less glamorous career in the infantry instead.
It also offered the important perquisite of beginning work in the im- perial capital. Petersburg in June at the ripe age of eighteen. He also indulged in less re- spectable pursuits. A verse he penned on the spot during an evening out with some friends nicely conveys his days as a young man-about-town in St. We drank—and Venus with us Sat sweating at the table. When shall we four sit again With whores, wine and pipes? A fairy tale in verse set in ancient Rus, this fantasy playfully combined many exotic ele- ments in the French classical manner.
Instead, he was punished with a transfer to the southwestern frontier in May Although Pushkin chafed at the provincialism of his new environs, the banishment came as a blessing to his nascent literary career. He also had the good fortune of being assigned initially to an indulgent superior who was not overly alarmed at having a disgraced poet on his staff.
The next few months were an idyllic time as Pushkin enjoyed the company of the Raevskii clan, which included four charming daughters. Held in their camp, the prisoner wins the love of a Circassian maiden. Brokenhearted, the girl drowns herself as her beloved returns to the safety of the Russian lines. Vladimir Solovyov , Alexander III , Get Ivan Kramskoy essential facts below.
View Videos or join the Ivan Kramskoy discussion. Add Ivan Kramskoy to your PopFlock. Portrait of Kramskoi by Ilya Repin , Ostrogozhsk , Voronezh Governorate , Russian Empire. Petersburg , Russian Empire. Leo Tolstoy , Portrait of a woman reading, , Yekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts. This article uses material from the Wiki pedia page available here.
La Chevaleresque, Polka Mazurka, Op. Jersey City, New Jersey. He spent some time in Rome, copying the old masters, and continued his lessons in Vienna with August Eisenmenger and Anselm Feuerbach. In , he settled in Paris. The following year, he participated in his first artists' salon. He later made trips to Spain, Morocco, Egypt and Istanbul to study and document what he saw there. He decorated his home in Ottoman style and lived a reclusive life. His exact date of death was apparently not recorded.
Work He began as genre painter but, from , he devoted himself exclusively to Frederick Arthur Bridgman November 10, — January 13, was an American artist known for his paintings of "Orientalist" subjects. Thereafter, Paris became his headquarters. In , he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, and became a full member in He led a peripatetic life style and travelled and worked in many countries. Life and career Baixeras was born in Barcelona in While under Pohl's direction, he executed many portraits of female nudes and Orientalist works.
This inspired him to prepare many paintings of ballerinas, dancers and circus performers. He prepared portraits of American celebrities such as Marilyn Monroe. Through his work in portraiture, he gai Life Edwin Lord Weeks in his studio. Weeks was born in Boston, Massachusetts in His parents were affluent spice and tea merchants from Newton, a suburb of Boston, and as such they were able to finance their son's youthful interest in painting and travelling. His earliest known paintings date from when he was eighteen years old, although it is not until his Landscape with Blue Heron, dated and painted in the Everglades, that Weeks started to exhibit a dexterity of technique and eye for composition—presumably having taken professional tuition.
Throughout his adult life he was an inveterate traveler and journeyed Blas Olleras y Quintana — was a Spanish figure painter and landscape painter known for works in the Orientalist genre. He was born in Avila, Spain, and worked primarily in Italy as a watercolorist. He died in Florence, Italy. Other works by Quintana include: He was a renowned specialist in Oriental themes. Between , he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Chlebowski traveled to Spain, Italy, Germany, and Belgium. During his services, he had obtained permission to bring with him a large icon of Mother of God Leading Our Way having been rescued from the Hodegon Monastery in He had come across it in one of the magasins with old relics, unhe He is known mainly for his genre paintings, military scenes and Orientalist subject matter.
Some books on Orientalist art give his name as Felice Cerruti Beauduc. After completing his studies in veterinary science at Fossano, Felice Cerruti Bauduc was engaged in the Italian War of Independence, He subsequently decided to try and earn a living from painting and studied with Horace de Vernet who specialised in military scenes, many inspired by North Africa. In the later years of his career he turned his attention to Orientalist subject matter such as Arab Caravan and Fantasia arabe Charles-Amable Lenoir 22 October — was a French painter.
Like his mentor, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, he was an academic painter and painted realistic portraits as well as mythological and religious scenes. His mother was a seamstress and his father was a customs officer. When he was young, his father was reassigned and the family moved to Fouras. He did not start out in life as an artist, but instead began his education at a teachers' college in La Rochelle. Lenoir made his artistic debut at the Salon in and cont Vincent Manago — was a French painter in the Orientalist style. Biography Vincent Manago was born in Toulon in France in He migrated to North Africa and then to France and painted landscape views and street scenes.
Vincent Manago was a very popular painter in Marseille between and , where his work was shown at the Foire internationale de Marseille and at the Exposition Coloniale des Paysages d'Afrique et de Provence. He specialised in landscape, marine and genre paintings of the Mediterranean coast Port de Martiques, La Rochelle, Venice and in Orientalist painting.
The latter showed the influence of his stay in Tunisia and Algeria on his art. He used vivid colors in his paintings. As would other Orientalist artists, he also used scenes depicted on postcards as inspiration for his paintings. Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque, Vol. The term bazaar is sometimes also used to refer to the "network of merchants, bankers and craftsmen" who work in that area. Although the current meaning of the word is believed to have originated in Persia, its use has spread and now has been accepted into the vernacular in countries around the world. In Balinese, the word pasar means "market.
Some of his works are also displayed at the Palace of Versailles. He was also an accomplished archaeologist, and is regarded as the pioneer of the museum curator's profession in Turkey. Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger 25 April — October was a French figure painter known for his classical and Orientalist subjects. Life and career The Harem Boulanger was born at Paris in He was orphaned at age 14, and his uncle and guardian subsequently sent him to the studio of Pierre-Jules Jollivet and then to Delaroche in In took the Prix de Rome with his painting, Ulysses, a work which combined a classical approach with Orientalist overtones.
His paintings are prime examples of academic art of the time, particularly history painting.
Boulanger had visited Italy, Greece, and North Africa, and his paintings reflect his attention to culturally correct details and skill in rendering the female fo William Lamb Picknell 23 October — 8 August was a United States painter of landscapes, coastal views, and figure genres, known for his rapid painting style. He was born in Hinesburg, Vermont and died in Marblehead, Massachusetts. In July, , the summer following his father's death, the Picknell family moved to Chelsea, Massachusetts.
He was living at Moret-sur-Loing, on the edge of the Forest of Font By the Garden Door Frank Francis Crawford Penfold was an American artist and teacher, remembered for his genre, landscape and portrait paintings, many of which he completed while living in Pont-Aven in Brittany. Although his father wanted him to become an engraver, his talent for painting was noticed at school.
Thereafter his father instructed him in portraiture and other styles of painting. Summer Rambles and The Kitchen Door. In , he decided to continue his studies in France where he arrived in He settled in Pont-Aven, Brittany, where he taught some of those who belonged to the growing colony of artists. Nathaniel Hone the Younger 26 October — 14 October  was an Irish painter, the great-grand-nephew of a better-known painter, Nathaniel Hone. Life and career Hone began his career as a railway engineer but gave this up to study art in Paris.
Most of his later paintings are landscapes, very often enlivened with animals and occasionally with figures. He was a member of the Hone family. In France he was influenced by the painter Gustav Courbet who was taking a new and quite revolutionary realistic approach. His closest painting tips were, however, from another French impressionist, Camille Corot. Hone became a close friend of one of Corot's followers at the Barbizon School of landscape painting.
At Barbizon he learned to appreciate colour, texture and tone in the landscape and apply it in strong and confident brushworks to the painting of Irish subjects on his return. Biography A pupil of Cabanel, Debat-Ponsan was famous for his portraits of wealthy citizens and politicians in Paris, paintings of ancient history and scenes of peasant life. In he traveled to Italy thanks to a sum of 4, francs which was granted to him by the Academy.
There he saw different painting works, after which he began to paint portraits. This trip inspired one of his most celebrated works, Poiret illustrations by Paul Iribe, Poiret harem pants and sultana skirts, Model in a Poiret dress, Model in a Poiret suit, Paul Poiret 20 April , Paris, France — 30 April , Paris was a leading French fashion designer, a master couturier during the first two decades of the 20th century.
He was the founder of his namesake haute couture house. His contributions to his field have been likened to Picasso's legacy in 20th-century art. During his stay in Constantinople he was painting numerous genre scenes of the everyday life in Turkey under Louis XVI and he also depicted locals and foreign dignitaries. The painting depicts the native-born Annette Duvivier de Testa who became the ambassador's wife.
She had previously been married to Testa, a merchand and member of a prominent Genoe John Griffiths 29 November — 1 December was a British artist who worked in India, noted for his Orientalist works. One of his major works was the copying of paintings in the Buddhist temples at Ajanta which were published in two large folio volumes "The paintings in the Buddhist Cave Temples at Ajanta". He was married with two daughters. The Burlington Magazine, Vol. He became so enchanted with North Africa and its culture, that he converted to Islam, and was proficient in Arabic.
In addition to his paintings, he translated Arabic literature into French. He also exhibited for the first t