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A study published in the Public Library of Science PLOS found that about two percent of scientists admitted to committing fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in their work. These dubious practices may include misrepresentations, research bias, and inaccurate interpretations of data. One common questionable research practice entails formulating a hypothesis after the research is done in order to claim a successful premise. Another highly questionable practice that can shape research is ghost-authoring by representatives of the pharmaceutical industry and other for-profit fields.

The above percentages represent what scientists admit to doing themselves; when they evaluate the practices of their colleagues, the numbers jump dramatically. In a study published in the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , researchers estimated that 14 percent of other scientists commit serious misconduct, while up to 72 percent engage in questionable practices. While these are only estimates, the problem is clearly not one of just a few bad apples. Those in the Macchiarini case showed extraordinary persistence in their multi-year campaign to stop his deadly trachea implants, while suffering serious damage to their careers.

Such heroic efforts to unmask fraud are probably rare. To make matters worse, there are numerous players in the scientific world who may be complicit in either committing misconduct or covering it up. These include not only primary researchers but co-authors, institutional executives, journal editors, and industry leaders. Essentially everyone wants to be associated with big breakthroughs, and they may overlook scientifically shaky foundations when a major advance is claimed.

And studies have shown that older, more experienced and possibly jaded researchers are more likely to fudge results than their younger, more idealistic colleagues. So, given the steep price that individuals and institutions pay for scientific misconduct, what compels them to go down that road in the first place? According to the JRMS study, individuals face intense pressures to publish and to attract grant money in order to secure teaching positions at universities. Once they have acquired positions, the pressure is on to keep the grants and publishing credits coming in order to obtain tenure, be appointed to positions on boards, and recruit flocks of graduate students to assist in research.

And not to be underestimated is the human ego. Paolo Macchiarini is an especially vivid example of a scientist seeking not only fortune, but fame. He liberally and falsely claimed powerful politicians and celebrities, even the Pope, as patients or admirers.


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He may be an extreme example, but we live in an age of celebrity scientists who bring huge amounts of grant money and high prestige to the institutions that employ them. Learn how we rate. For Your Family Log in Sign me up. Is it OK for kids to read books outside their reading levels? Column 4 Our impact report: How Tech Is Changing Childhood. Want personalized picks that fit your family?

Behaving Badly

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Behaving Badly 2014 Comedy Movies

Find showtimes, watch trailers, browse photos, track your Watchlist and rate your favorite movies and TV shows on your phone or tablet! Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Teenager Rick Stevens has a crush on Nina Pennington. They form a friendship and embark on a rock n' roll journey together while Nina deals with her overbearing boyfriend, Kevin. IMDb's Guide to Streaming. My Watched Movies since Share this Rating Title: Behaving Badly 4. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Rick Stevens Selena Gomez Nina Pennington Mary-Louise Parker Billy Bender Heather Graham