The volumes of abdominal visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular fat were measured in a 15 cm section of the abdomen centered at the junction of the lumbar 4th and 5th as previously described The measure of pericardial fat was made based on a region 15 mm above and 30 mm below the left main coronary artery as previously described and includes both epicardial and paracardial aka.
Thigh muscle and adipose tissue was measured using a 5 cm section of the thigh centered at the junction of the proximal and middle third of the femur. Intermuscular adipose tissue was separated from subcutaneous adipose by drawing a line along the deep fascial plane surrounding the thigh muscles. Thigh muscle area was considered the total area of nonadipose and nonbone tissue within the deep fascial plane.
Thigh muscle attenuation Hounsfield units , excluding intermuscular fat, was assessed and used to indicate fat infiltration into the muscle. Measurements were made for each leg independently and measures of thigh muscle volume and intermuscular fat were summed for statistical analyses. The primary end points for this study were abdominal visceral fat volume measured by CT and measures of nonskeletal appendicular lean mass measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The additional measures of body composition were secondary outcomes.
This study was designed to focus on the main effects of pioglitazone and resistance training. We did not have sufficient preliminary data on the variability in abdominal VAT in men to calculate statistical power for that outcome and assumed that the variability in abdominal VAT would be similar for both genders. For primary analyses, the average VAT volume at follow-up was compared between the pioglitazone and no pioglitizone groups, and the average appendicular nonbone lean mass at follow-up was compared between resistance training and no resistance training groups, using two-way analysis of covariance.
Each model contained the baseline value for the outcome and the main effect for each randomized group pioglitazone, resistance training. Main effects were tested at the 0. The effects of the main interventions on the change in the other measures of body composition were examined secondarily following the same statistical approach. P values are reported for the primary outcomes. The overall effect of caloric restriction on the measures of body composition and ectopic fat depots, collapsed over treatment group, was determined using contrasts within analysis of covariance, with adjustment for the main effect of each intervention arm and the interaction term between interventions.
Men and women were analyzed separately throughout. Five of the seven who dropped out did so for reasons unrelated to the study.
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One was unable to remain on the diet and one withdrew for health reasons unrelated to the study interventions. Of the seven who did not complete the study, four participants did not complete the dietary intervention, two of whom were randomized to resistance training and did not complete that intervention; however, these participants were able to complete the week closeout measurements.
Baseline characteristics of men and women according to intervention group are described in Table 1. Since our analysis determined the main effects of resistance training and pioglitazone treatment, we included baseline characteristics of men and women according to main intervention arms as well. Otherwise, there were no differences between groups in baseline characteristics Table 1. Across treatment groups, men lost 6. Men receiving pioglitazone lost more abdominal visceral fat compared to men who were not given pioglitazone and men who resistance-trained lost less appendicular lean mass compared to men who did not Figure 2.
However, there was no effect of pioglitazone on any other measure of body composition in women. The baseline and follow-up values adjusted for baseline for all measures of body composition in men and women and the adjusted between group differences for the main effects are presented in Table 2. Baseline and week change in measures of body composition following weight loss in nondiabetic men and women, according to main intervention arm.
In older overweight and obese nondiabetic men and women, participation in a hypocaloric weight-loss program reduced overall fat mass, as well as adipose tissue volumes across multiple fat compartments. The percent of fat loss was greatest from the abdominal visceral compartment in men and women, but we also observed significant, although proportionally lower, losses from the abdominal subcutaneous, thigh intermuscular, thigh subcutaneous, and pericardial compartments. Although changes in ectopic fat depots following weight loss are reported, most have studied adults younger than our participants and none have assessed all the depots we did 8 , 9 , 25 , The men and women in this study lost more weight than our participants Neither of these studies 28 , 29 reported pericardial fat loss; although pericardial fat loss during weight loss is reported 8 , 9 , it has not been so in older men and women specifically.
Our results confirm and build upon the available studies because we demonstrated the volume of fat in multiple depots, including pericardial and intermuscular, decreases during weight loss in nondiabetic men and women 65 years and older. Our data suggest that in older overweight men, a 6. Generally, abdominal visceral fat is preferentially lost during weight loss, compared to the abdominal subcutaneous and epicardial depots 8 , In older men and women, even a modest weight loss can reduce visceral abdominal adiposity to a degree that has been associated with improved cardiometabolic health outcomes.
A greater weight loss may need to be achieved to reduce epicardial fat to the amount associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, the therapeutic significance of reducing pericardial or epicardial fat remains obscure Intermuscular fat is an important determinant of physical function in older men and women 7 , 19 , and it is plausible that an alternate mechanism by which weight loss improves physical performance is through loss of intermuscular fat.
In longitudinal analyses of the Health ABC Health Aging, and Body Composition study, muscle fat infiltration strongly predicted muscle weakness and limited mobility 19 , The 6-month change in thigh intermuscular adipose tissue area was inversely correlated with the change in physical performance as well In this study both the weight-loss and nonweight-loss groups participated in a physical activity intervention comprised of aerobic, strength, balance and flexibility exercises.
All of our study participants underwent dietary weight loss and we did not observe an added benefit of resistance training with respect to changes in thigh muscle fat or any other ectopic fat depots. Therefore, our results suggest weight loss is a key determinant of fat loss from intermuscular and other depots, compared to physical activity, as others have also observed In their weight-loss intervention trial Santanasto et al. Taken together these outcomes suggest resistance training is important to reducing lean tissue loss, and that less intensive resistance training that focuses on improving lower extremity power is an effective strategy to preserve lean tissue during weight loss in older adults.
However, loss of subcutaneous fat in the thigh was attenuated in women taking pioglitazone. However, most studies assessing the effect of pioglitazone treatment on adipose tissue distribution have not differentiated visceral from subcutaneous fat in the extra-abdominal regions, and have not examined men and women separately. Men and women differ in adipose tissue loss from the visceral and subcutaneous compartments during weight-loss trials, which may partially explain why pioglitazone treatment had a differential effect on men and women in our study.
Our study was powered to test for main effects and we would have only been able to detect interactions if the interaction effect size was very large. We adjusted our analyses for intervention, and have demonstrated that hypocaloric weight loss reduces adipose tissue volume across multiple ectopic depots, using CT to quantify fat loss. This study was not powered to assess associations between fat loss and metabolic or functional outcomes, so the association between region-specific fat-loss and these outcomes merit additional investigation in future weight-loss intervention trials.
Muscle attenuation was used to indicate fat infiltration in the thigh and abdominal muscle, and no direct measures of muscular lipid content were used for these analyses. However, CT attenuation has been shown to correlate with the myocellular lipid content measured from biopsy samples Finally, due to our medical exclusion criteria, applicability of these findings to less healthy populations is limited.
Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the detrimental effects of weight gain, yet are not necessarily advised to lose weight, primarily due to concerns about loss of muscle or physical function. Increased ectopic fat accumulation is adversely associated with physical function 3 , and weight-loss trials with functional outcomes are emerging In order to reduce the risk of obesity-related disability and co-morbid diseases among older adults, it is important to identify intervention strategies that promote fat loss and reduce lean tissue loss.
Our findings demonstrate weight-loss strategies that target fat-loss and reduce muscle loss in older adults are feasible and well-adhered to. Following hypocaloric weight loss, overall there was significant reduction in fat across multiple ectopic depots, including intermuscular and pericardial fat. Pioglitazone reduced abdominal visceral fat loss in nondiabetic older men, but did not appear to affect other ectopic fat depots or nondiabetic older women. Resistance training during weight loss reduced lean tissue loss, but we were unable to detect an effect on intermuscular fat or any depots measured.
Together our findings provide the basis for the development of future trials to determine the benefit of similar interventions on physical function and disability-related outcomes in older adults. Supplementary material is linked to the online version of the paper at http: The authors declared no conflict of interest.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb 1. Kyla Shea , 1 Barbara J. Nicklas , 1 Anthony P. Marsh , 2 Denise K. Houston , 1 Gary D. Miller , 2 Scott Isom , 3 Michael E. Miller , 3 J. Jeffrey Carr , 3, 4 Mary F. Lyles , 1 Tamara B. Harris , 5 and Stephen B. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available free at Obesity Silver Spring. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.
Associated Data Supplementary Materials supplementary table 1. Abstract Age-related increases in ectopic fat accumulation are associated with greater risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and physical disability. Open in a separate window. Resistance training The goal of the resistance training program was to increase strength and muscle mass in the major muscle groups of the body, while also improving muscle power in the lower extremity. Outcomes Body composition Anthropometrics Height cm and body mass kg were measured with shoes and jackets or outer garments removed.
Computed tomography CT The CT images of the thorax, abdomen and thigh were obtained on a multidetector CT LightSpeed Pro16, General Electric Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI to provide measures of pericardial fat, abdominal adiposity total, subcutaneous and visceral fat , thigh muscle and thigh fat volume and attenuation , and liver attenuation steatosis.
Statistical analysis This study was designed to focus on the main effects of pioglitazone and resistance training. Table 2 Baseline and week change in measures of body composition following weight loss in nondiabetic men and women, according to main intervention arm. Supplementary Material supplementary table 1 Click here to view. The changing relationship of obesity and disability, — Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, — Obesity, intentional weight loss and physical disability in older adults. Intracellular lipid accumulation in liver and muscle and the insulin resistance syndrome.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. Association of pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: Leg muscle mass and composition in relation to lower extremity performance in men and women aged 70 to J Am Geriatr Soc. Comparison of epicardial, abdominal and regional fat compartments in response to weight loss. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. This publication is unique among physical culture magazines. I give recommendations based on personal experience. Secondly, it contains articles by notables in the field of bodybuilding, nutrition, and mind science.
You will learn how to avoid disaster in your training as you get older, what to focus on, how to stay healthy and not get injured. The way many bodybuilders are training now will lead to pain and suffering in their later years. Why not learn from my experience? Each issue presents a diversity of tropics ranging from training, nutrition, cooking, meditation, dream work, visualization, positive attitude, affirmations, motivation and stress management techniques.
Autumn issue contains articles by writers who are held in high esteem in their field, like Samir Bannout Mr. Olympia and John White a widely published author in the psychology of personal growth. One set of each exercise with high reps done in a slow strict followed by a stretch between sets will make you more enthusiastic and insure you are not overtraining.
Rest Between Reps — Getting all your reps finished in one set will give you the ultimate treatment necessary to adequately work a body part. Simply do as many continuous reps at once in good form, rest a few seconds and continue, resting as necessary until 20 to 30 reps are completed. Then stretch and walk around until breathing returns to near normal. Avoid redundancy and go right to your next exercise. Acupressure Taping — is a great to use when you are injured and still want to train. This special taping technique relieves pain because it lifts the skin away from the muscle and helps improve circulation to the injured area.
It also provides support and alignment. My Final Contest — was Mr.
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Olympia in Munich, Germany. How nice it is to get superior nutrition from foods you can easily prepare yourself that taste good. Ghost In Your Genes — Ed Kellogg PhD discusses how paying attention to your dream can give you messages about your health and well being. Frankly Speaking Bodybuilding Longevity How long do bodybuilders live?
The Art of Peaking How to do it. Get Waisted with this abdominal training program. Seasonal Training for Longevity live like a tree Clay Holmberg gets in shape. Who is Ernest Eagleheart? The Spring issue of Building the Body Quarterly is now available. It is filled with personal experiences and training tips that make for enlightening reading. The Arnold Expo was a big success with , people attending over the 3 day period March 5, 6, and 7th.
Read all about the competition and all that went on at this milestone event. Olympia was an interesting episode in my competitive career filled with hope, politics, and disappointment. Find out what went wrong in Essen, Germany and what I learned from the experience. Diet and Supplementation gives procedures for optimizing your nutrition without adding unwanted calories.
Learn how you can benefit. He lifted up the world and me along with it. I tell about his feats of strength and endurance and how it motivated me to train harder with the right attitude. You can get a great back doing this routine. Ernest Eagleheart and the Smoky Mirrors is a tale about the psychology of human perception. The defense mechanism of projection is in operation all the time. What can you do about it?
The summer issue of Building the Body quarterly has been published. It is printed with a sepia tone which suggests the content: The Golden Years of Bodybuilding:. Here are some interesting training stories about the guys who trained there. Frank also recounts his experience and learning from the Legends of Bodybuilding: A New Shoulder was what Frank received May 24th. Monday, Wednesday, Friday they work upper body and Tuesday and Saturday they do legs, with abs and aerobics at the end of each workout. Both are getting into really good shape just doing one set of each exercise.
Nutrition and Email gives interesting perspectives from readers and answers questions on the minds of many. The message and metaphors exemplify self transcendence. The Autumn issue Building the Body Quarterly has just been mailed to subscribers. I really like this issue, the first one to have color inside and outside full color covers. Printed on high gloss paper the quality of reproduction is superb. Christine and I are training 4 or 5 times a week working upper body one day and legs the next.
Drawing on my experience I relate how to safely employ top deadlifts to thicken and widen the back. Robert Kennedy Improves — He writes his own story with before and after photos and tells how he packed on pounds of muscle. Olympia competitions and what I learned.
Olympia — Had a great time attending my first Mr. Olympias were presented onstage, and it was a great expo at the convention center. Dennis Tinerino — Lots of photos from the five years I competed with this great champion before his passing away, he is missed. The winter issue of Building the Body Quarterly Magazine has been published and is now being printed.
We expect to do the mailing by the end of January. One week before the Mr. Olympia Christine captured my condition which might be my best shape ever. You can decide as these photos appear in full color on the front, back, and inside covers. With inside information about what really went down, this Winter issue makes for very interesting reading. Read all about them. What do ya bench? How much bench pressing should you do?
How should you do them? How long you rest between sets depends upon what you are after. Rest less but it will affect your strength. Rest longer so you can recover enough to use more weight on successive sets. After doing a Zane Experience program Jim got into the best shape of his life and won some contests. Read what it was like. James Pencola — survived a devastating auto crash, spent months in a coma, learned to walk, talk, eat, move all over again, and is now a certified personal trainer. Proportion — is the blending of all developed bodyparts into a pleasing overall picture.
Perfect proportion is a life long quest and is the most important physique goal a bodybuilder can have. The Lifetime Fitness Average — Master trainer Larry Kay explains why the fitness average taken over your whole lifetime is much more important than a few physical peaks reached in training for competitions. The Zane Trainer — Starting this year I am teaching a new personal trainer certification program.
It is the only program that offers one to one hands on instruction with me in my private San Diego gym. Completion of this course teaches you everything you need to know to help beginners make progress. You can be a Zane Trainer! Olympia — Read all about what happened in London competing at my heaviest ever bodyweight. What could I have done better? Feedback — Knowledge of results is essential for ongoing motivation. Photos are the best way to develop an awareness of what you look like so you can take the right steps to do something constructive about it.
The Joy of Training Light — Not the best way to grow bigger muscles, nevertheless doing higher reps with lighter weights and slower negatives gets the blood pumping and tones the muscles and is the best way to ease back into regular more intensive training. High Def Body — is the title of my new book which combines and updates Zane Body Training Manual and High Def Handbook both of these are going out of print as our supply is almost sold out.
Accelerate Healing of Injuries — by Larry Scott gives great advice on how to heal quickly based on the first Mr. New evidence suggests a younger beginning. Being Jack La Lanne — His passing left big shoes to fill. I was enjoyed meeting and working with him. Here are some his favorite sayings. Challenging Impossibility — is a film about the lifting exploits of Sri Chinmoy. Read about the reception at the Tribecca Film Festival.. Repetition — is the basis of learning tells about what kind of effect repetition has on your training results.
What is the extent? The Diet for a Lifetime — deals with optimum way to take advantage of free form amino acid and protein supplementation to the diet to increase nutrient density. Many bodybuilding notables and strength athletes attended along with Joe and Betty Weider. The event was hosted by Jan and Terry Todd. How to Stay Motivated — Some of the ways Frank has used to keep training for over 50 years. How do you get it? How to Grow — Gaining muscular bodyweight requires you work the big bodyparts, especially thighs. The key to growth is squatting but you need to do it sayfely.
The Elbow — how to prevent injury and what to do to heal inner or outer elbow injury if it occurs. My Favorite Arm Workouts too place training for Mr. Find out exactly how I did it. Olympia is the story of the remarkable improvement of Jesse Fernandez in only 8 weeks! Reflections on the Golden Years includes some photos of the crew who trained at the original Golds Gym in the early 70s. Know yourself — How do you think you look? Is it the same as others see you? Learn how different kinds of symmetry reflect self knowledge. Rank Theory is about how depression evolved in society and signs of it in the outcomes of bodybuilding competitions.
O in a while. And we now have , , , and issues of Building the Body available from Amazon as Kindle editions with Barnes and Noble Nook to follow. World — contest was held December 10th in Miami, Florida, I was there and it was no surprise that Dexter Jackson won the K first prize. Read all about it. Emotion and Health — Recent research has found that heart focused, sincere, positive feeling states boost the immune system while negative emotions may suppress the immune response for up to six hours following and emotional experience.
See his amazing progress photos. New Zane Experience rates — This is a good year to do a 1, 2, or 3 day Zane Experience, rates have been lowered as an economic incentive. The Psychology of Possibility — Learn how going to failure in your workouts can lead to learned helplessness: Advantages of 1, 2, 3 and 4 sets per exercise — is a valuable guide as to when you should do more sets. Crooked Calf Raises — by pointing toes in a specific direction you can work inner head of one calf and outer head of the other at the same time and change the shape of your calf development over time.
Frankly Speaking — Bodybuilder and photographer Bob Delmontique a long time friend, client, and advisor recently passed away at age We will miss him. Alumni Workouts — Now those who have done a Zane Experience program in the past can train with regular workouts.
My eBook Reading List — Paper books are becoming a thing of the past. The Amazing Progress of Kirk Steffke — he completely transformed his physique in less than one year! Are You a Hard Gain? My 70th Birthday — Felt like my 69th birthday. Except that training is going much better. Interesting Research — on genes, citrus extract, vitamin D, improving vision with stem cells, Tai Chi, obesity and cancer, dark chocolate and coffee benefits. Workout Songs — help establish motivational internal dialog and help you get psyched for your workout.
Bodybuilding and Yoga — an insightful interview with Frank where he explains the motivation underlying it all. Olympia — was held the weekend of September 28th. This exercise is the one needed for developing the vacuum pose. Weighted Linear Resistance Training — Why is it so effective? Because it combines weighted movements with latex bands to increase peak contraction and maximize time under tension. It says there are no special moments in time, one moment is as good as any other. Walking Long Distances — is something 72 year old Kent Steel does on a regular basis. It keeps him young!
Why is the heart so important in sleep? Who should do them? Master trainer Larry Kay tells all. A Symmetry Excerpt — introduces the goals and methods of symmetry training. You need to know this. Glimpse his remarkable improvement. The Calf Blaster — How many calf blocks does a gym need? How many do most gyms have? Calf Blasting Routine — Try this program using a minimum of equipment to develop great calves. Secrets of a Small Muscular Waistline — Here is a program you can do to shrink your waistline and improve your abs. Training Goals for — Here we go again.
Learn what Frank plans to do with his body this year. Climbing and Floating — Kirk learns how climbing develops calves and how floating deeply relaxes. Training with a Lower Back Injury — Master trainer Larry Kay gives a back routine that enables you to improve back development without re-injury. What else does it do? The Arnold Expo — in Columbus Ohio.
How to Relax — Learn how Frank dissolves muscular tension in a moment. Nice Pecs — Programs Frank has used to better pec development. Are You Amortal — It means pursuing a lifestyle that defies the process of ageing.
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Take this simple test and find out. Symmetry Through the Ages — tells how to stay symmetrical your whole life. Longevity — Seems to be enhanced through bodybuilding. Learn why bodybuilders live longer. Herare are the statistics 3. What is Secondary Gain? Frank Making a Comeback Again?
What is the Fibonacci Workout? Hanging Kenee Up — Is my favorite ab execise. Stretching — is what we do between sets.