Ambassador Graham Martin 's belief that Saigon could be held and that a political settlement could be reached. Schlesinger announced early in the morning of 29 April the evacuation from Saigon by helicopter of the last U. Frequent Wind was arguably the largest helicopter evacuation in history. It began on 29 April, in an atmosphere of desperation, as hysterical crowds of Vietnamese vied for limited space.
But American public opinion had soured on this conflict. Frequent Wind continued around the clock, as North Vietnamese tanks breached defenses on the outskirts of Saigon. In the early morning hours of 30 April, the last U. Marines evacuated the embassy by helicopter, as civilians swamped the perimeter and poured into the grounds. Many of them had been employed by the Americans and were left to their fate. On 30 April , NVA troops entered the city of Saigon and quickly overcame all resistance, capturing key buildings and installations.
A tank from the th Division crashed through the gates of the Independence Palace at During the course of the Vietnam War a large segment of the American population came to be opposed to U. Public opinion steadily turned against the war following and by only a third of Americans believed that the U. Early opposition to U. Kennedy, while Senator, opposed involvement in Vietnam. Many young people protested because they were the ones being drafted while others were against the war because the anti-war movement grew increasingly popular among the counterculture.
Some advocates within the peace movement advocated a unilateral withdrawal of U. Opposition to the Vietnam War tended to unite groups opposed to U. Others, such as Stephen Spiro opposed the war based on the theory of Just War. High-profile opposition to the Vietnam War increasingly turned to mass protests in an effort to shift U.
Riots broke out at the Democratic National Convention during protests against the war. On 15 October , the Vietnam Moratorium attracted millions of Americans. In , China extended diplomatic recognition to the Viet Minh 's Democratic Republic of Vietnam and sent heavy weapons, as well as military advisers led by Luo Guibo to assist the Viet Minh in its war with the French China's support for North Vietnam when the U. In the summer of , Mao Zedong agreed to supply Hanoi with 90, rifles and guns free of charge. Starting in , China sent anti-aircraft units and engineering battalions to North Vietnam to repair the damage caused by American bombing, man anti-aircraft batteries, rebuild roads and railroads, transport supplies, and perform other engineering works.
This freed North Vietnamese army units for combat in the South. Sino-Soviet relations soured after the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in August The Chinese also began financing the Khmer Rouge as a counterweight to the Vietnamese communists at this time. China "armed and trained" the Khmer Rouge during the civil war and continued to aid them for years afterward.
The Khmer Rouge launched ferocious raids into Vietnam in — When Vietnam responded with an invasion that toppled the Khmer Rouge, China launched a brief, punitive invasion of Vietnam in Using airspeed and direction, COSVN analysts would calculate the bombing target and tell any assets to move "perpendicularly to the attack trajectory. The Soviet Union supplied North Vietnam with medical supplies, arms, tanks, planes, helicopters, artillery, anti-aircraft missiles and other military equipment. Soviet crews fired Soviet-made surface-to-air missiles at U.
Over a dozen Soviet citizens lost their lives in this conflict. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in , Russian officials acknowledged that the Soviet Union had stationed up to 3, troops in Vietnam during the war. Some Russian sources give more specific numbers: Between and , the hardware donated by the Soviet Union included 2, tanks, 1, APCs , 7, artillery guns, over 5, anti-aircraft guns, surface-to-air missile launchers, helicopters. In addition, Soviet military schools and academies began training Vietnamese soldiers—in all more than 10, military personnel.
These programs helped proved pivotal in detecting and defeating CIA and South Vietnamese commando teams sent into North Vietnam, as they were detected and captured. Cooperation between North Vietnam and Czechoslovakia on the development of its air capabilities begun as early as As a result of a decision of the Korean Workers' Party in October , in early North Korea sent a fighter squadron to North Vietnam to back up the North Vietnamese st and rd fighter squadrons defending Hanoi. They stayed through , and pilots were reported to have served.
The contribution to North Vietnam by the Republic of Cuba , under Fidel Castro have been recognized several times by representatives of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. There are numerous allegations by former U. Presidential candidate and former Vietnam prisoner of war, according to his book Faith of My Fathers. East German authorities had also begun providing material and technical aid to help develop and modernise the North Vietnamese economy and military.
The Polish People's Republic had played a substantive role in brokering and serving as an intermediary for peace-talks between Hanoi and Saigon, as part of a delegation under the International Control Commission alongside Western European nations. On the anti-communist side, South Korea a. Kennedy, but Kennedy disagreed. Official records are vindictive of the role of ROK Forces in the war, as State Department reports publicly questioned their usefulness in the conflict, as they have "appeared to have been reluctant to undertake offensive operations, and are only useful in guarding a small sector of the populated area".
Approximately , South Korean soldiers were sent to Vietnam,  each serving a one-year tour of duty. Maximum troop levels peaked at 50, in , however all were withdrawn by South Korea claimed to have killed 41, Viet Cong. Thai forces saw much more action in the covert war in Laos between and , though Thai regular formations there were heavily outnumbered by the irregular "volunteers" of the CIA-sponsored Police Aerial Reconnaissance Units or PARU, who carried out reconnaissance activities on the western side of the Ho Chi Minh trail.
Both nations had gained experience in counterinsurgency and jungle warfare during the Malayan Emergency and World War II. Their governments subscribed to the Domino theory. New Zealand was however a reluctant participant. Officials prophetically expected a foreign intervention to fail, were concerned that they would be supporting a corrupt regime and didn't want to further stretch their country's small military which was already deployed to Malaysia.
Australia began by sending advisors to Vietnam in , and combat troops were committed in More than 60, Australian personnel were involved during the course of the war, of which were killed and more than 3, wounded. Australia's decades of experience from both the Malayan Emergency and its AATTV role in saw a recognised need for true counter-insurgency which relied on providing village-level security, establishing civilian trust and economic incentives and improving ARVN capabilities.
Some 10, Filipino troops were dispatched to South Vietnam. They were primarily engaged in medical and other civilian pacification projects. More noteworthy was the fact that the naval base in Subic Bay was used for the U. Seventh Fleet from till the end of the war in Since November , Taiwan secretly operated a cargo transport detachment to assist the United States and South Vietnam. Brazil , under a U. Canada, India and Poland constituted the International Control Commission , which was supposed to monitor the ceasefire agreement.
There was an active strategy of recruitment and favorable treatment of Montagnard tribes for the Viet Cong , as they were pivotal for control of infiltration routes. FULRO to fight for autonomy or independence. This provoked a backlash from the Montagnards, some joining the NLF as a result. Following Vietnamization many Montagnard groups and fighters were incorporated into the Vietnamese Rangers as border sentries. A large number of war crimes took place during the Vietnam War.
War crimes were committed by both sides during the conflict and included rape, massacres of civilians, bombings of civilian targets, terrorism , the widespread use of torture and the murder of prisoners of war. Additional common crimes included theft, arson, and the destruction of property not warranted by military necessity. A probable war-crime which was neither investigated or brought to charge was the Thuy Bo massacre while the Son Thang massacre was one that warranted investigation with its perpetrators court-martial and serving less than a year of prison.
Of the portion of war-crimes which were reported to military authorities, sworn statements by witnesses and status reports indicated that war-crimes incidents had a factual basis. The establishment of numerous free-fire zones by U. Simons as "a severe violation of the laws of war". Rummel estimated that 39, were killed by South Vietnam during the Diem-era in democide from a range of between 16, and , South Vietnamese civilians; for to , Rummel estimated a total of 50, killed in democide, from a range of between 42, and , Thus, the total for to is 81,, from a range of between 57, and , deaths caused by South Vietnam.
Torture and ill-treatment were frequently applied by the South Vietnamese to POWs as well as civilian prisoners. Hawkins and William R. Anderson witnessed detainees either confined in minute "tiger cages" or chained to their cells, and provided with poor-quality food. A group of American doctors inspecting the prison in the same year found many inmates suffering symptoms resulting from forced immobility and torture.
South Korean forces were also accused of war crimes as well. Ami Pedahzur has written that "the overall volume and lethality of Viet Cong terrorism rivals or exceeds all but a handful of terrorist campaigns waged over the last third of the twentieth century", based on the definition of terrorists as a non-state actor, and examining targeted killings and civilian deaths which are estimated at over 18, from to Some mines were set only to go off after heavy vehicle passage, causing extensive slaughter aboard packed civilian buses.
During the Vietnam War, American women served on active duty doing a variety of jobs. Although a small number of women were assigned to combat zones, they were never allowed directly in the field of battle. The women who served in the military were solely volunteers. They faced a plethora of challenges, one of which was the relatively small number of female soldiers. Living in a male-dominated environment created tensions between the sexes. By , approximately 7, women had served in Vietnam in the Southeast Asian theater. To address this problem, the ANC released advertisements portraying women in the ANC as "proper, professional and well protected.
Although female military nurses lived in a heavily male environment, very few cases of sexual harassment were ever reported. Unlike the American women who went to Vietnam, both South and North Vietnamese women were enlisted and fought in the combat zone. Women were enlisted in both the North Vietnamese Army NVA and the Viet Cong guerrilla insurgent force in South Vietnam, many joining due to the promises of female equality and a greater social role within society. All female units were present throughout the entirety of the war, ranging from front-line combat troops to anti-air units, scout and reconnaissance units and others providing intelligence.
Some, like in the WAFC, fought in combat with other soldiers. Others served as nurses and doctors in the battlefield and in military hospitals, or served in South Vietnam or America's intelligence agencies. The war saw more than one million rural people migrate or flee the fighting in the South Vietnamese countryside to the cities, especially Saigon.
Among the internal refugees were many young women who became the ubiquitous "bargirls" of wartime South Vietnam "hawking her wares—be that cigarettes, liquor, or herself" to American and allied soldiers. The Vietnam War also saw women play a prominent role as front-line reporters in the conflict, directly reporting on the conflict as it occurred. The French-speaking Australian journalist Kate Webb was captured alongside a photographer and others by the Viet Cong in Cambodia and travelled into Laos with them, released back into Cambodia afterwards after 23 days of captivity. The experience of American military personnel of African origin during the Vietnam War had received significant attention.
For example, the website "African-American Involvement in the Vietnam War" compiles examples of such coverage,  as does the print and broadcast work of journalist Wallace Terry. An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans , includes observations about the impact of the war on the black community in general and on black servicemen specifically. Points he makes on the latter topic include: As a result, by the war's completion in , black casualties had declined to During the early stages of their insurgency, the Viet Cong mainly sustained itself with captured arms often of American manufacture  or crude, self-made weapons e.
In the summer and fall of , all Viet Cong battalions were reequipped with arms of Soviet design such as the AK assault rifle and the RPG-2 anti-tank weapon. Many divisions within the NVA would incorporate armoured and mechanised battalions including the Type 59 tank. Found to be unsuitable for jungle warfare, the M14 was replaced by M16 which was more accurate and lighter than the AK For a period, the gun suffered from a jamming flaw. The M60 machine gun GPMG General Purpose Machine Gun was the main machine gun of the US army at the time and many of them were put on helicopters, to provide suppressive fire when landing in hostile regions.
The MAC machine pistol was supplied to many special forces troops in the midpoint of the war. It also armed many CIA agents in the field. The AC was a heavily armed ground-attack aircraft variant of the C Hercules transport plane; it was used to provide close air support , air interdiction and force protection. The Huey is a military helicopter powered by a single, turboshaft engine, and approximately 7, UH-1 aircraft saw service in Vietnam.
At their disposal ground forces had access to B and F-4 Phantom II and others to launch napalm , white phosphorus , tear gas and chemical weapons as well. The Claymore M18A1 , an anti-personnel mine was widely used, and is command-detonated and directional shooting steel pellets in the kill zone. The Vietnam War was the first conflict where U. The National Security Agency ran a crash program to provide U. Eventually 30, units were produced.
However limitations of the units, including poor voice quality, reduced range, annoying time delays and logistical support issues led to only one unit in ten being used. On a per capita basis, the 2 million tons dropped on Laos make it the most heavily bombed country in history; The New York Times noted this was "nearly a ton for every person in Laos. Air Force official Earl Tilford has recounted "repeated bombing runs of a lake in central Cambodia. The Bs literally dropped their payloads in the lake": The Air Force ran many missions of this kind for the purpose of securing additional funding during budget negotiations, so the amount of tonnage expended does not directly correlate with the resulting damage.
Ten percent of the population of Ho Chi Minh City was suffering from serious venereal diseases when the war ended, and there were 4 million illiterates throughout the South. By , the Viet Minh had lost influence over the Cambodian communists. Under the leadership of Pol Pot , the Khmer Rouge would eventually kill 1—3 million Cambodians out of a population of around 8 million, in one of the bloodiest genocides in history.
The relationship between Vietnam and Cambodia, then ruled by the Khmer Rouge communist party, escalated right after the end of the war, April In response to the Khmer Rouge taking over Phu Quoc on 17 April and Tho Chu on 4 May , and was thought to be their responsibility for the disappearance of Vietnamese natives on Tho Chu, Vietnam launched a counterattack to take back these islands. In response, China invaded Vietnam in The two countries fought a brief border war, known as the Sino-Vietnamese War. From to , some , ethnic Chinese left Vietnam by boat as refugees or were expelled.
The Pathet Lao overthrew the monarchy of Laos in December , establishing the Lao People's Democratic Republic under the leadership of a member of the royal family, Souphanouvong. The change in regime was "quite peaceful, a sort of Asiatic ' velvet revolution '"—although 30, former officials were sent to reeducation camps, often enduring harsh conditions for several years. The conflict between Hmong rebels and the Pathet Lao continued in isolated pockets.
The millions of cluster bombs the US dropped on Southeast Asia rendered the landscape hazardous. In Laos alone, some 80 million bombs failed to explode and remain scattered throughout the country, rendering vast swathes of land impossible to cultivate and killing or maiming 50 Laotians every year. Most Asian countries were unwilling to accept these refugees, many of whom fled by boat and were known as boat people. China accepted , people. Included among their ranks were "about 90 percent" of Laos's "intellectuals, technicians, and officials.
Agent Orange and similar chemical substances used by the U. Scientific reports have concluded that refugees exposed to chemical sprays while in South Vietnam continued to experience pain in the eyes and skin as well as gastrointestinal upsets. In one study, ninety-two percent of participants suffered incessant fatigue; others reported monstrous births.
There is substantial evidence that the birth defects carry on for three generations or more. In the post-war era, Americans struggled to absorb the lessons of the military intervention. We thought that we were going into another Korean War , but this was a different country. Who was Ho Chi Minh? So, until we know the enemy and know our allies and know ourselves, we'd better keep out of this kind of dirty business.
According to a Gallup poll, 62 percent of Americans believed it was an unjust war. Failure of the war is often placed at different institutions and levels. Some have suggested that the failure of the war was due to political failures of U. Yet in Vietnam the Army experienced tactical success and strategic failure A new humility and a new sophistication may form the best parts of a complex heritage left to the Army by the long, bitter war in Vietnam. Others point to a failure of U.
As he remarked, "I still doubt that the North Vietnamese would have relented.
Secretary of State Henry Kissinger wrote in a secret memo to President Gerald Ford that "in terms of military tactics, we cannot help draw the conclusion that our armed forces are not suited to this kind of war. Even the Special Forces who had been designed for it could not prevail. Hanoi had persistently sought unification of the country since the Geneva Accords, and the effects of U. The costs of the war loom large in American popular consciousness; a poll showed that the public incorrectly believed that more Americans lost their lives in Vietnam than in World War II.
More than 3 million Americans served in the Vietnam War, some 1. Westheider wrote that "At the height of American involvement in , for example, there were , American military personnel in Vietnam, but only 80, were considered combat troops. As of , the U. By war's end, 58, American soldiers had been killed, [A 2] more than , had been wounded, and at least 21, had been permanently disabled. As the Vietnam War continued inconclusively and became more unpopular with the American public, morale declined and disciplinary problems grew among American enlisted men and junior, non-career officers.
Drug use, racial tensions, and the growing incidence of fragging —attempting to kill unpopular officers and non-commissioned officers with grenades or other weapons—created severe problems for the U. By , a U. Army colonel writing in the Armed Forces Journal declared: The morale, discipline, and battle-worthiness of the U.
Armed Forces are, with a few salient exceptions, lower and worse than at any time in this century and possibly in the history of the United States. Army recorded more than attacks by troops on their own officers. Eighty-three officers were killed and almost were injured. The Vietnam War called into question the U. Marine Corps General Victor H. Krulak heavily criticised Westmoreland's attrition strategy, calling it "wasteful of American lives… with small likelihood of a successful outcome.
Furthermore, throughout the war there was found to be considerable flaws and dishonesty by officers and commanders due to promotions being tied to the body count system touted by Westmoreland and McNamara. Ron Milam has questioned the severity of the "breakdown" of the U.
Investigating one combat refusal incident, a journalist declared, "A certain sense of independence, a reluctance to behave according to the military's insistence on obedience, like pawns or puppets The grunts [infantrymen] were determined to survive The last conscript was inducted into the army in One of the most controversial aspects of the U.
They were used to defoliate large parts of the countryside to prevent the Viet Cong from being able to hide their weapons and encampments under the foliage. These chemicals continue to change the landscape, cause diseases and birth defects, and poison the food chain. Early in the American military effort, it was decided that since the enemy were hiding their activities under triple-canopy jungle, a useful first step might be to defoliate certain areas. This was especially true of growth surrounding bases both large and small in what became known as Operation Ranch Hand.
Corporations like Dow Chemical Company and Monsanto were given the task of developing herbicides for this purpose. American officials also pointed out that the British had previously used 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D virtually identical to America's use in Vietnam on a large scale throughout the Malayan Emergency in the s in order to destroy bushes, crops, and trees in effort to deny communist insurgents the concealment they needed to ambush passing convoys. Kennedy on 24 November , that "[t]he use of defoliant does not violate any rule of international law concerning the conduct of chemical warfare and is an accepted tactic of war.
Precedent has been established by the British during the emergency in Malaya in their use of aircraft for destroying crops by chemical spraying. The defoliants, which were distributed in drums marked with color-coded bands, included the " Rainbow Herbicides "— Agent Pink , Agent Green , Agent Purple , Agent Blue , Agent White , and most famously, Agent Orange , which included dioxin as a byproduct of its manufacture.
About 11—12 million gallons Navy patrol boats were vulnerable to attack from the undergrowth at the water's edge. In and , the Kennedy administration authorized the use of chemicals to destroy rice crops. Air Force sprayed 20 million U. Another purpose of herbicide use was to drive civilian populations into RVN-controlled areas. Vietnamese victims affected by Agent Orange attempted a class action lawsuit against Dow Chemical and other U.
Weinstein dismissed their case. In some areas of southern Vietnam, dioxin levels remain at over times the accepted international standard. In , Anh Duc Ngo and colleagues of the University of Texas Health Science Center published a meta-analysis that exposed a large amount of heterogeneity different findings between studies, a finding consistent with a lack of consensus on the issue on the effect of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
There is data near the threshold of statistical significance suggesting Agent Orange contributes to still-births, cleft palate, and neural tube defects , with spina bifida being the most statistically significant defect. The US Veterans Administration has listed prostate cancer , respiratory cancers , multiple myeloma , Diabetes mellitus type 2 , B-cell lymphomas , soft-tissue sarcoma , chloracne , porphyria cutanea tarda , peripheral neuropathy , and spina bifida in children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange.
Estimates of the number of casualties vary, with one source suggesting up to 3. The military forces of South Vietnam suffered an estimated , killed between and and additional deaths from to and in Defense Department officials believed that these body count figures need to be deflated by 30 percent.
Between ,  and ,  Cambodians were estimated to have died during the war including between 40, and , combatants and civilians from US bombings. Unexploded ordnance , mostly from U. According to the Vietnamese government, ordnance has killed some 42, people since the war officially ended. The Vietnam War has been featured extensively in television, film, video games, music and literature in the participant countries. In Vietnam the diary has often been compared to The Diary of Anne Frank and both are used in literary education.
In American popular culture, the "Crazy Vietnam Veteran", who was suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder , became a common stock character after the war. The war is also depicted in popular video games , especially in first-person shooter war genre , such as Line of Sight: Vietnam , Vietcong , Battlefield Vietnam , Vietcong: Fist Alpha , Elite Warriors: Vietnam , The Hell in Vietnam , Battlefield: Vietnam , Call of Duty: Black Ops , Call of Duty: Declassified , Rising Storm 2: Vietnam , and in Far Cry 5 as an additional content.
The war also saw depiction in another genre , in the form of third-person shooter , MMORPG , real-time strategy and role-playing , such as Rambo: Edit this page Read in another language Vietnam War. For a list of wars throughout the history of Vietnam, see List of wars involving Vietnam. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings.
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Taiwan    . Terminology of the Vietnam War. Viet Cong and War in Vietnam — North Vietnamese invasion of Laos. War in Vietnam —63 and Strategic Hamlet Program. Joint warfare in South Vietnam, — Gulf of Tonkin incident. Nuclear threats and diplomacy U. Further information on the final North Vietnamese offensive: Ho Chi Minh Campaign. Russell Tribunal and Fulbright Hearings. Pro-Hanoi 2, years of Chinese-Vietnamese enmity and hundreds of years of Chinese and Russian mutual suspicions were suspended when they united against us in Vietnam.
South Korea in the Vietnam War. Thailand in the Vietnam War. Republic of China in the Vietnam War. Canada and the Vietnam War. Vietnam War , and Vietnam War casualties. List of massacres in Vietnam. Weapons of the Vietnam War. Events in Southeast Asia Further information: Mayaguez incident and Indochina refugee crisis. The Sixties Unplugged U. Fitzgibbon's family the start date of the Vietnam War according to the US government was officially changed to 1 November Lists and Statistics, dated 26 February ,  and the book Crucible Vietnam: Memoir of an Infantry Lieutenant.
The Vietnam War Chronicles — cited elsewhere in this article gives a figure of 58, U. Retrieved April 8, Area Handbook for Brazil , p. University of Malaya Student Repository. Retrieved 17 October Archived PDF from the original on 16 October The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February , he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon.
These included a total of 45, single-barrel shotguns, armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in , he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint.
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Cesky a slovensky svet. Retrieved 24 February Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Cold War International History Project. Directorate of Intelligence , Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 20 July Similar Swedish aid was to go to Cambodian and Laotian civilians affected by the Indochinese fighting. This support was primarily humanitarian in nature and included no military aid. Beacon Press, , Section 3, pp. The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 17 November Retrieved 31 May Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 2 August University of Kansas Press, , p.
Retrieved 24 December A Political, Social, and Military History. Retrieved 3 October The Final Years, — , Washington, D. J , "Table 6. Department of Veterans Affairs. Archived from the original PDF on 24 January American War and Military Operations: Event occurs at minutes.
For Some, the War Never Ended. AuthorHouse 21 March Retrieved 29 June A Political, Social, and Military History". New Zealand and the Vietnam War. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 10 June Archived from the original on 29 October Embassy of South Vietnam. Retrieved 18 October Ministry of Defence , Government of Vietnam. A History of the World , Routledge, The hoarders and spendthrifts joust , using as weapons great weights that they push with their chests:.
Relating this sin of incontinence to the two that preceded it lust and gluttony , Dorothy L. Sayers writes, "Mutual indulgence has already declined into selfish appetite; now, that appetite becomes aware of the incompatible and equally selfish appetites of other people. Indifference becomes mutual antagonism, imaged here by the antagonism between hoarding and squandering.
In the swampy, stinking waters of the river Styx — the Fifth Circle — the actively wrathful fight each other viciously on the surface of the slime, while the sullen the passively wrathful lie beneath the water, withdrawn, "into a black sulkiness which can find no joy in God or man or the universe". Sayers writes, "the active hatreds rend and snarl at one another; at the bottom, the sullen hatreds lie gurgling, unable even to express themselves for the rage that chokes them". Little is known about Argenti, although Giovanni Boccaccio describes an incident in which he lost his temper; early commentators state that Argenti's brother seized some of Dante's property after his exile from Florence.
When Dante responds "In weeping and in grieving, accursed spirit, may you long remain,"  Virgil blesses him with words used to describe Christ himself Luke Literally, this reflects the fact that souls in Hell are eternally fixed in the state they have chosen, but allegorically, it reflects Dante's beginning awareness of his own sin. In the distance, Dante perceives high towers that resemble fiery red mosques.
Virgil informs him that they are approaching the City of Dis. Dis, itself surrounded by the Stygian marsh, contains Lower Hell within its walls. The walls of Dis are guarded by fallen angels. Virgil is unable to convince them to let Dante and him enter, and Dante is threatened by the Furies consisting of Alecto , Megaera , and Tisiphone and Medusa. Canto IX An angel sent from Heaven secures entry for the poets, opening the gate by touching it with a wand, and rebukes those who opposed Dante.
Allegorically, this reveals the fact that the poem is beginning to deal with sins that philosophy and humanism cannot fully understand. Virgil also mentions to Dante how Erichtho sent him down to the lowest circle of Hell to bring back a spirit from there.
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Canto X In the sixth circle, heretics , such as Epicurus and his followers who say "the soul dies with the body"  are trapped in flaming tombs. Dante holds discourse with a pair of Epicurian Florentines in one of the tombs: Farinata degli Uberti , a famous Ghibelline leader following the Battle of Montaperti in September , Farinata strongly protested the proposed destruction of Florence at the meeting of the victorious Ghibellines; he died in and was posthumously condemned for heresy in ; and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti , a Guelph who was the father of Dante's friend and fellow poet, Guido Cavalcanti.
The political affiliation of these two men allows for a further discussion of Florentine politics. In response to a question from Dante about the "prophecy" he has received, Farinata explains that what the souls in Hell know of life on earth comes from seeing the future, not from any observation of the present.
Consequently, when "the portal of the future has been shut",  it will no longer be possible for them to know anything.
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Farinata explains that also crammed within the tomb are Emperor Frederick II , commonly reputed to be an Epicurean, and Ottaviano degli Ubaldini , to whom Dante refers to as il Cardinale. In his explanation, Virgil refers to the Nicomachean Ethics and the Physics of Aristotle , with medieval interpretations. Virgil asserts that there are only two legitimate sources of wealth: Usury , to be punished in the next circle, is therefore an offence against both; it is a kind of blasphemy, since it is an act of violence against Art, which is the child of Nature, and Nature derives from God.
Virgil then indicates the time through his unexplained awareness of the stars' positions. The "Wain", the Great Bear , now lies in the northwest over Caurus the northwest wind. The constellation Pisces the Fish is just appearing over the horizon: Canto I notes that the sun is in Aries, and since the twelve zodiac signs rise at two-hour intervals, it must now be about two hours prior to sunrise: Dante and Virgil descend a jumble of rocks that had once formed a cliff to reach the Seventh Circle from the Sixth Circle, having first to evade the Minotaur L'infamia di Creti , "the infamy of Crete ", line 12 ; at the sight of them, the Minotaur gnaws his flesh.
Virgil assures the monster that Dante is not its hated enemy, Theseus.
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This causes the Minotaur to charge them as Dante and Virgil swiftly enter the seventh circle. Virgil explains the presence of shattered stones around them: Ruins resulting from the same shock were previously seen at the beginning of Upper Hell the entrance of the Second Circle , Canto V. Canto XV Protected by the powers of the boiling rivulet, Dante and Virgil progress across the burning plain.
They pass a roving group of Sodomites, and Dante, to his surprise, recognizes Brunetto Latini. Dante addresses Brunetto with deep and sorrowful affection, "paying him the highest tribute offered to any sinner in the Inferno ",  thus refuting suggestions that Dante only placed his enemies in Hell. Rusticucci blames his "savage wife" for his torments.
The sinners ask for news of Florence, and Dante laments the current state of the city. At the top of the falls, at Virgil's order, Dante removes a cord from about his waist and Virgil drops it over the edge; as if in answer, a large, distorted shape swims up through the filthy air of the abyss. Dante goes alone to examine the Usurers: The coats of arms indicate that they came from prominent Florentine families; they indicate the presence of Catello di Rosso Gianfigliazzi , Ciappo Ubriachi , the Paduan Reginaldo degli Scrovegni who predicts that his fellow Paduan Vitaliano di Iacopo Vitaliani will join him here , and Giovanni di Buiamonte.
Dante then rejoins Virgil and, both mounted atop Geryon's back, the two begin their descent from the great cliff in the Eighth Circle: Geryon, the winged monster who allows Dante and Virgil to descend a vast cliff to reach the Eighth Circle, was traditionally represented as a giant with three heads and three conjoined bodies. Geryon is a "monster with the general shape of a wyvern but with the tail of a scorpion , hairy arms, a gaudily-marked reptilian body, and the face of a just and honest man". The Eighth Circle is a large funnel of stone shaped like an amphitheatre around which run a series of ten deep, narrow, concentric ditches or trenches called bolge singular: Within these ditches are punished those guilty of Simple Fraud.
From the foot of the Great Cliff to the Well which forms the neck of the funnel are large spurs of rock, like umbrella ribs or spokes, which serve as bridges over the ten ditches. Sayers writes that the Malebolge is, "the image of the City in corruption: Sexuality, ecclesiastical and civil office, language, ownership, counsel, authority, psychic influence, and material interdependence — all the media of the community's interchange are perverted and falsified". Canto XXII One of the grafters, an unidentified Navarrese identified by early commentators as Ciampolo is seized by the demons, and Virgil questions him.
The sinner speaks of his fellow grafters, Friar Gomita a corrupt friar in Gallura eventually hanged by Nino Visconti see Purg. He offers to lure some of his fellow sufferers into the hands of the demons, and when his plan is accepted he escapes back into the pitch. Alichino and Calcabrina start a brawl in mid-air and fall into the pitch themselves, and Barbariccia organizes a rescue party. Dante and Virgil take advantage of the confusion to slip away.
The centaur Cacus arrives to punish the wretch; he has a fire-breathing dragon on his shoulders and snakes covering his equine back. In Roman mythology, Cacus, the monstrous, fire-breathing son of Vulcan , was killed by Hercules for raiding the hero's cattle; in Aeneid VIII, —, Virgil did not describe him as a centaur. Dante then meets five noble thieves of Florence and observes their various transformations.
Agnello Brunelleschi, in human form, is merged with the six-legged serpent that is Cianfa Donati. Puccio Sciancato remains unchanged for the time being. Consider well the seed that gave you birth: Dante replies with a tragic summary of the current state of the cities of Romagna. Guido then recounts his life: When the Colonna accepted the terms and left the castle, the Pope razed it to the ground and left them without a refuge.
Guido describes how St. Francis , founder of the Franciscan order, came to take his soul to Heaven, only to have a devil assert prior claim. Although Boniface had absolved Guido in advance for his evil advice, the devil points out the invalidity: Schicchi sinks his tusks into Capocchio's neck and drags him away like prey. Griffolino explains how Myrrha disguised herself to commit incest with her father King Cinyras , while Schicchi impersonated the dead Buoso Donati to dictate a will giving himself several profitable bequests.
He is punished by a loathsome dropsy -like disease, which gives him a bloated stomach , prevents him from moving, and an eternal, unbearable thirst. Master Adam points out two sinners of the fourth class, the Perjurers Falsifiers of Words. These are Potiphar's wife punished for her false accusation of Joseph , Gen. Both suffer from a burning fever.
Master Adam and Sinon exchange abuse, which Dante watches until he is rebuked by Virgil. As a result of his shame and repentance, Dante is forgiven by his guide. Sayers remarks that the descent through Malebolge "began with the sale of the sexual relationship, and went on to the sale of Church and State; now, the very money is itself corrupted, every affirmation has become perjury, and every identity a lie"  so that every aspect of social interaction has been progressively destroyed.
The classical and biblical Giants — who perhaps symbolize pride and other spiritual flaws lying behind acts of treachery  — stand perpetual guard inside the well-pit, their legs embedded in the banks of the Ninth Circle while their upper halves rise above the rim and can be visible from the Malebolge. Also here is the Giant Antaeus , who did not join in the rebellion against the Olympian Gods and therefore is not chained. At Virgil's persuasion, Antaeus takes the Poets in his large palm and lowers them gently to the final level of Hell.
Cocytus , the Ninth Circle of Hell. Trapped in the ice, each according to his guilt, are punished sinners guilty of treachery against those with whom they had special relationships. A Marine's Journey through South Vietnam, Brown Water - Red Blood. Camp with Eric Hammel. Memoir of a Recon Marine in Vietnam, Here There are Tigers. What My War Was Like. A Nghu Day Dawns. A Trip Thru Hell Nam. Flak at 12 O'clock. An Alternative View of the Vietnam War. A Combat Marine's Vietnam Memoir.
Death in the A Shau Valley. Run Through the Jungle. Memories of a Fighter Pilot.