Sanctions, loyalty, homogeneity and division of labour in the Dutch parliament. Party Politics 17 5: The mediating effect of electoral vulnerability.
Definition of 'context'
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Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 35 5: Gelman, A Scaling regression inputs by dividing by two standard deviations. Statistics in Medicine 27 Goodwin, M Political science? Does scientific training predict UK MPs voting behaviour? Parliamentary Affairs 6 2: Legislative Studies Quarterly 12 2: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86 6: Political Quarterly 74 3: British Journal of Political Science 27 4: Norton, P Cohesion without discipline: That is, a set of test-relevant and neutral pictures will be presented together with a red or blue frame.
Red should raise arousal perceptions for both picture types thus confirming the arousal theory but it should increase valence perceptions only for test-relevant pictures confirming the color-in-context theory. Given a color 2 red vs.
Thus, a total of undergraduate students at German universities participated in the study, 71 in the red test condition, 77 in the red neutral condition, 81 in the blue test condition, and 76 in the blue neutral condition. This is the only study on color and arousal and valence perceptions that we have conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions, rendering a color 2 red vs.
The experimenters were blind to condition and hypotheses. Participants were instructed to open a folder to view 4 different pictures, around 6. We handed four pictures to enable enough stimuli variability and to reduce the likelihood of unknown confounds.
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More precisely, dependent on the experimental group, they either saw four red-primed test-relevant pictures, 4 blue-primed test-relevant pictures, four red-primed neutral pictures, or four blue-primed neutral pictures. The neutral pictures were selected based on the normative valence ratings and showed scenarios, such as a theater hall picture , a newspaper , or a person reading a book picture The forth neutral picture showing a stage was retrieved from the internet and judged as neutral by two dependent experts beforehand.
Content-matched negative, test-relevant pictures, retrieved from the internet and judged as negative by two dependent experts beforehand, showed scenarios, such as a lecture hall while students writing an exam, a person being frustrated while working on a paper, a person being frustrated while reading a book, or a lecture hall. Color was manipulated by encircling the pictures with a red or blue frame, 0.
A spectrophotometer was used to determine the precise parameters of the colors: After participants viewed each of the respective four photos dependent of condition for five seconds, they were instructed to complete the questionnaire containing the dependent measures of both arousal and valence, demographic items, as well as some control items i.
No specific effects on arousal have been hypothesized. For each of the 4 pictures 1 item was used to assess valence i. Participants responded on 1 not at all to 9 extremely scales for both measures, and the scales were labeled only on point 1 and 9. In between no labels were given as this has been shown to be sufficient and an understandable scale labelling for different variables in previous studies e. Based on Spielberger et al. Participants responded on a 1 almost never to 4 almost always scale.
Participants responded on 1 not at all true to 5 absolutely true scales. All participants gave written informed consent and were thoroughly debriefed. Participants were also told that they could stop and leave the experiment at any point of time. Data were stored and analyzed anonymously. This consent procedure has been approved by the ethics committee.
A between-subjects analysis of variance ANOVA with color and context as between-subjects factors was conducted on arousal. To determine the exact nature of this moderation we additionally ran Scheffe post-hoc tests within each context condition. Supplementary analyses controlling for both covariates, trait and test anxiety, showed that these measures of individual differences did not substantially moderate the interaction effect on valence reported above.
The present study examined the influence of red on both arousal and valence perceptions of test-relevant and neutral stimuli. As mentioned before, arousal theorists, like Wexner and Goldstein , state that the color red per se is arousing. Research on the color-in-context theory in contrast, could show that context in which the color red is perceived influences its valence-related meaning and behavioral responses to it e.
However, with regard to the color-in-context theory red was expected to raise valence perceptions only for test-relevant pictures, as context is said to be the determining factor. Context dependent moderations of red have consistently been shown for valence related variations.
As such, Buechner et al. Further, Buechner et al. In line with these predictions the perception of red appears to be arousing, no matter if the stimuli is neutral or negative i. Controlling for the covariates, trait and test anxiety, did not substantially moderate the interaction effect on valence. As such, independently of the trait and test anxiety of subjects, reddened test-relevant pictures were perceived as more negative than blue test-relevant ones as well as red neutral ones. Previous research has shown that the recognition of facial and bodily expressions is influenced by the context e.
Principles and Practice Does the misuse of the phrase matter if the context makes it obvious what the writer means? Times, Sunday Times Is it possible that the winged lion has a particular meaning in this context?
The Sun The first is an absence of historical context. Times, Sunday Times Any avoidance of normal food items can only really help in the context of a total health programme. Turner, Roger Newman The Hayfever Handbook - a summer survival guide This gave us a broader cultural context in which to understand the currents of thought in which they swam. Times, Sunday Times In this context, domestic policy no longer seems to matter much.
Times, Sunday Times The league will help provide context for all Test matches. The Sun So there is a wider social and economic policy context and we shouldn't be embarrassed about saying that.
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Times, Sunday Times All of this must be seen in the context of the fact that she is affected with mosaic Turner syndrome. Times, Sunday Times Translate your text for free. Nearby words of 'context'. Related Terms of 'context'.