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A missal is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the year. A sacramentary contains only the priests part of services and includes such words for more than just the mass. Lorrha appears only a few times in the Annals of Inisfallen. The slaying of Aed Dub. Repose of Ailill, abbot of Lothra. Coibdenach the learned, abbot of Lothra, [rested].

There are pattial shafts and bases of two crosses. They seem to date from about CE. Their present broken state may be attributable to the Cromwelligans, who vandalized them during the 17th century. Only a small portion of the shaft of this cross remains. The base is quite large, standing about three feet in height. The base is divided horizontally into two registers. The lower register has two parts. The left side of the register takes up about three quarters of the width of the base.

It consists of two lion-like animals facing each other, each with a raised paw. Further right is another lion-like animal facing right toward a man with outstretched hand. The meaning is not clear. On the far right of the lower register Harbison identified two crosses, each with a hole in the square at the crossing. The upper register of the base consists of several panels of fretwork.

Above that is a narrow step that has a procession of animals moving from the right to the left. On the steps above that no decoration can be discerned. The shaft contains figure sculpture, with at least two figures visible. No interpretation can be ventured. The lower part of the shaft is divided vertically into two panels. The left panel has a scene carved on it. Harbison identifies what looks like an altar with faggots on it in the lower right corner. On the left side there is an indication of a tree. The panel could represent both Adam and Eve in the garden and the Sacrifice of Isaac.

The right panel contains interlace. Above, on a narrow step there are animals moving from right to left. This repeats the pattern on the east face. No carving is visible on the upper steps. What remains is a very worn panel of interlace. The lowest step of the base is divided into three panels.

On the left is interlace, in the center a spiral decoration and on the right a panel of fretwork. The next step up has a procession of animals. The upper steps have no visible decoration. There appears to be figure sculpture, but no interpretation can be offered. The lowest step is divided vertically into two panels.

A bit of fretwork is visible on the extreme right of the right panel. Otherwise the panels are badly worn. On the next two steps up is a procession of animals. Interlace is visible in the central panel of the shat fragment. The base of this cross is about four feet square and about a foot and a half in height.

It is rough-hewn in its present condition. The upper part of this image has been broken away. The shaft is around four feet in height. Each side appears to contain interlace. East Face; Above right West Face. North side; To the right South Side. The Monastary and Saints. Information on the history of Mona Incha can be difficult to unravel. The photo to the left shows the entire area of the Mona Incha site.

It is a very small area. It was originally an island in a shallow lake. In the late 6th or early 7th century Saint Cronan, founder of the monastery at Roscrea, to the west of Mona Incha, built a cell on the island. Presumably he used this as a place of retreat. The Roscrea monastery was established in the late 6th century, placing the early religious use of Mona Incha to that same period of time.

The photo to the right shows the west front of the church at Mona Incha with the Romanesque arch. Some two hundred years later, Saint Elair Helair appears on the scene. They had a presence there until It was during the 12th century the church that remains on the site as a ruin, was built. In the mid 13th century new windows were added to the east wall of the chancel and the south wall of the nave. One legend connected to the site states that any woman attempting to visit the island would die instantly. In contrast any man, while on the island, could not die.

Mona Incha has been given several names. The Mona Incha cross consists of a base and head joined together by a modern concrete shaft. The Irish Stones website suggests a date for the base in the 9th century and for the head in the 12th century. Peter Harbison suggests the two are likely contemporary, both being carved in the 12th century. The photo to the left shows the east side of the cross.

The east face and north side of the base have no decoration. The south side has an image of two horsemen. Between them there is a large figure that may have been speared by the rider on the right. The horses stand on stepped crosses. It has been suggested that this image may reflect the Exodus. The west face of the base has figural sculpture that can no longer be identified. The photo below shows the south side of the base. Upper Shaft and Head. The east face of the head, as seen above, bears animal interlace but it is badly worn.

The west face, seen in the photo to the right, bears an image of Christ crucified. The north and south sides both contain animal interlace, also badly worn. The Monastery and Community. The view from thence struck me with awful recollections of by-gone times. The aged round tower and saxon gable end of St. In the distance, reviving the long dormant spirit of Irish chivalry, appeared Carrickhill, anglice, the Hill of the Rock, from which is taken the title of the Earl of Carrick. This description could virtually be used as a tour guide of significant sites in Roscrea in the early twenty-first century.

The photos below show some of these sites. Clockwise from the upper left: Roscrea is located in a gap in the hills along the ancient road known as the Slighe Dala. Saint Cronan was the Abbot-Bishop and patron of the monastery at Roscrea. He had been living in Connacht but returned to his native area about C. He initially settled at what is now Mona Incha, as described above. He seems to have had a cell there. Soon after, perhaps in , he founded the Abbey at Roscrea. He established a school there of some repute. Across the years the Abbey produced at least three books: It stands on a low base that has no carving.

The east face has four panels. The lowest depicts Adam and Eve, apparently clothed and standing by a tree. The fourth panel, also difficult to define, has a figure that may be a centaur. There are two figures behind. One of them may be playing a Pan pipe. The image above and left depicts the east face and south side of the cross.

The head has a large image of a Bishop or Abbot who holds a crozier in front of himself. See photo to the right. There is an image of a bishop or abbot on the shaft. This figure wears a cloak and holds an in-turned crook in the right hand.

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See image above right. The majority of the south side of the head is a substitute. At the very top of the head of the shaft, part of the original, there appear to be two human figures. The shaft on this face of the cross is badly worn. It has been identified in the past as having several panels of animal interlace. The head has an image of the crucifixion. Harbison describes the image as follows: He is apparently clad in a long robe with a belt at the waist. The photo at the left shows the upper shaft and the head of the west face. There is a large human figure, wearing a long robe that is belted at the waist.

The head is missing and was apparently originally separate. The photo at the right shows the west face on the right and the north side of the shaft on the right. A pillar, just under three feet in height, stands near the Catholic Church. It was moved to its present site in It is possible that it was originally part of a cross.

Harbison identifies three panels on this face of the cross, pictured to the right. The worn nature of the sculpture makes interpretation hazardous, though it could conceivably represent David Presenting to Saul the Head of Goliath on a stick. On the top is a griffin, it may hold two legs in its mouth. At the bottom of the shaft is what appears to be a hunting scene. Above it is what appears to be "an animal interlace enclosed by a raised circular moulding. See the image on the right in the photo above on the left.

There are four bosses in the center surrounded by a ring of larger bosses. At the top of the chaft is a quadruped with an arched body. See the image on the left in the photo above to the left. The monastery that became Toureen Peakaun was founded in the seventh century by St. His successor was St.

Beccan also referred to as Peakaun, Beagan and Mo-Bhec-oc. It was from this St. Beccan that the name of the site derives. There is a scarcity of information about the history of the site. The features of Toureen Peakaun lie on either side of the small stream in the photo to the left.

The road is just wide enough for one vehicle. A beginning date in the 7th century is suggested by the tradition regarding the foundation of the monastery. The presence of the West cross, a cross that is not early and seems to postdate the twelfth century, suggests the monastery was still active in the thirteenth century. We can deduce then that the monastery was active during a period of at least six hundred years, from some time in the seventh century till some time in the thirteenth century.

Saint Alban Abhun, Abban: The primary information available regarding St. Alban relates to his foundation of the monastery at Toureen Peakaun. Tradition suggests that at some point after founding the monastery he moved on and left the monastery in the care of St. In a helpful article on her omniumsanctorumhiberniae blog, Marcella helps clarify who Saint Becan of Toureen Peakaun was.

In the literature on the Irish saints there are three Becans whose lives seem to be confused and conflated. One of these saints is connected with Saint Alban; another with St. Colum-Cille and the third with King Diarmaid. This would contradict the tradition stated above that the Toureen Peakaun monastery was not founded until the seventh century.

He later refers to a death date for Becan of C. This would be consistent with a seventh century date for the foundation of the monastery. Becan was reputed to be a recluse or hermit. It is reported that he often fasted for as many as three days. He lived a penitential life, constantly praying on bended knee for forgiveness of his many imperfections. It is said he had a stone cross erected in the open and that regardless of the weather he would each day stand by the cross, with arms outstretched as if hanging on the cross while he recited the whole of the Psalter.

There are numerous features at the Toureen Peakaun site.

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The most obvious is the twelfth century church pictured above. The church is about 36 feet by 24 feet. Fastened to the walls of the church are two undecorated stone crosses and the remains of a sundial. See the photos below. In addition, there are two cross inscribed slabs attached to the walls of the church. These are pictured below. The source of these photographs is the Early Christian Ireland website cited below.

Across the stream that bisects the site and some distance away are St. See the photos left and right. To the west of the church, on higher ground is an undecorated stone shaft that is presumed to be the shaft of a cross. It is referred to as the West Cross.

Southeast of the church there is a rectangular area where numerous stones have been placed. These include parts of the East Cross, two cross inscribed stones and remains of grave slabs. See the photo above right and those to the left and right. The source of the photographs of the cross inscribed stones is the Early Christian Ireland website cited below.

As indicated above, there are four crosses or, more accurately, fragments of crosses present at Toureen Peakaun. This suggests that the other three, the West Cross and the two plain crosses attached to the walls of the church are of a date later than I will be describing each of the four crosses, beginning with the East Cross. The East Cross is a composite cross. The shaft was rebated, and this rebate extended inwards at the junction of shaft and arm to form hollowed angles.

As illustrated to the right this was the way that a number of pieces were joined to form the cross. The original was, as described by Duignan, composed of the tapering shaft of micaceous sandstone, the arms of yellow sandstone, with the whole topped by a finial. In the one arm that was found, there is a mortise on the underside which probably accepted a prop that supported the arm. As such, the East cross may have served as a prototype for the 12th century St.

Waddell and Holland, p. Both the shaft and the arm share the feature of a reveal. This appears on each face of the cross as seen in the photos below. In the photo to the left the tall stone is part of the shaft of the cross. In the foreground and just to the right is a stone that is one of the arms of the cross. The west face is more complex. It is the side shown above in the illustration from Waddell and Holland and in the photo to the right.

This was confirmed by Crawford, who in , stated that it was uncarved and not of an early type. The cross is composed of two fragments that stand on a platform above the church to the west. These crosses are both rectangular in design. Each has a small tenon that would accommodate a cap. Each also has a small hole near the center of the crossing.

The site is located between Cahir and Tipperary. Well over a dozen families styled le Blond occur in thirteenth-fourteenth century records from Munster, Leinster and Ulster; by the later fourteenth century we find these families using the direct English translation White. As late as the mid-nineteenth century bearers of these surnames were mostly still found in the same counties their ancestors had inhabited.

Two examples of uncommon names may be of interest. Boyton is a place in Suffolk, and a family called Boyton first occur in association with the Tipperary town of Cashel as early as This family were prominent Cashel merchants for centuries after and gave their name to the nearby parish of Boytonrath. Several Catholic Boytons lost their lands around Cashel in the s, and some families of the name can still be found in the hinterland of Cashel.

Common Names Lineage is the term given by some historians to once powerful Anglo-Norman families whose numbers multiplied greatly in the centuries following upon the invasion, and whose descendants remain numerous today. The lineages descend from great lords who, from the earliest, appear to have kept concubines, often of native blood, and so had many children, legitimate or otherwise, to settle upon their broad acres. Many generations of such breeding habits saw the formation of dozens of gentry families of the same blood settled on the lands of the senior line of the family.

One example, the FitzGeralds, is illustrative. Maurice Fitz Gerald was one of the original invaders of Ireland in He was a native of the colony of Pembroke in Wales and was the son of Gerald fitz Walter, constable of Pembroke from about onwards, whose castle was at Carew. This Gerald was the son of a Norman who had come over in with King William. Maurice himself had six sons, all of whom obtained lands in Ireland.

Four of these left descendants: Thomas, ancestor of the Geraldines of Desmond, Gerald, ancestor of the Kildare Geraldines, Maurice, ancestor of the Geraldine barons of Burnchurch in County Kilkenny, some of whose descendants style themselves Barron, and Robert who settled on lands in County Kerry and whose great-grandson Maurice is the ancestor of the Kerry FitzMaurices. The Desmonds were particularly prolific. As early as the mid-thirteenth century John fitz Thomas is recorded as siring four illegitimate sons, each allegedly by the wife of a different native chieftain, three of whom were prolific themselves.

Other later offshoots of the main-line included several FitzGerald families whose lands were located in Counties Waterford, Cork and Limerick while from the Knights of Kerry descended a nest of FitzGerald gentry families whose lands were located in south-east County Cork between Youghal and Midleton. These in turn must be the ancestors to the many such families found in these counties today. In the course of time the original French and English spoken by the colonists was replaced by Gaelic, only to be replaced again by English in more recent centuries.

The relevance of this to surname studies will be obvious. The surname Nugent is that of an important and once powerful Meath family of Norman origin. The Cork and Waterford Nugents however, were originally called de Wynchedon, a form that re-emerged in the sixteenth century from its Gaelic intermediate as Nugent. Another feature of Gaelicisation was that of colonial families adopting native style patronyms. Thus the descendants of the thirteenth century Connacht settler Jocelyn de Angulo the later Nangle became the Mac Jocelyns, Gaelicised as MacGoisdhealbh, eventually coming back into English as McCostello, from which the Mac is often dropped today.

Similarly, many of the Kilkenny descendants of the Cornishman Odo le Archdeacon, who lived in the early s, adopted the form Mac Oda, the later Cody. Not all such patronyms successfully replaced the original form: In the next article in this series we will take a brief look at the histories of the most numerous of the Irish Anglo-Norman surnames. Little original research is being carried out today, leading to an over-dependency among scholars on the pioneering work of the late Dr McLysaght, author of a very fine corpus of work on Irish surname studies.

Two random examples may be given. In fact the McQuillans were a branch of the Scottish McDonnell clan while the Ulster Mandevilles abandoned their Antrim lands and retired to their County Waterford estate in the mid-fourteenth century. Then we have the Danish origin of the Cork surname Coppinger, as advanced by McLysaght, apparently swallowing the earlier error of a Cork historian of a previous generation.

Many other examples could be cited. The importance of local studies in this field cannot be stressed enough. The general view concerning the surname Joyce is that it is a Galway name. While Galway is certainly the ancestral home of most of the Irish Joyces there was a branch of the family settled near Killeagh in east Cork from at least the fourteenth century onwards, whose descendants remain numerous in the area and in nearby Cork City. Another such example we might take would be that of the surname Carew. Such are the intricacies of Irish surname study.

The greatest obstacle to the researcher in the field of Anglo-Norman surname studies today is the gross neglect and underfunding of both our national repositories and publishing effort, a story which has remained unchanged since the foundation of the state. Genealogists will be familiar with the gross underfunding and resultant understaffing of the National Library and National Archives, and so will not be surprised that a similar situation exists elsewhere.

The burning of our Public Record Office by vandals in destroyed the greater share of our historical and much of our genealogical sources. In light of this one would have expected later governments to compensate by treasuring the remnants of our history: The Irish Manuscript Commission has struggled for decades on a shoestring budget, barely operating. Currently it does not even have a distribution network in the Republic, and farcically, one has to travel to Belfast to obtain its few current publications.

Again one has to question the value of what little that house does publish.

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Material of limited value achieves publication while key source material, such as the seventeenth century Books of Survey and Distribution, a national survey of land ownership arranged by county, remain largely unpublished. The early seventeenth century Patent Rolls of James I, originally typeset in the s, finally achieved publication in , minus an index, which was however, promised shortly. In many ways this huge volume is almost useless without such a tool, which we still await. Another example concerns the Justiciary Rolls, all that remain of our early criminal case law and material of enormous value to students of history, genealogy, toponomy and criminology.

Two volumes were published before , covering the years By the time of the fire a third volume covering the years had been typeset; this was finally published in Material for a fourth volume, consisting of several hundred pages of longhand material on foolscap copied from the original rolls before the fire, with material covering the years , is held in the Archives and has, to the best of my knowledge, not even been microfilmed due to financial constraints. Substantial quantities of valuable documentation remain unpublished and, in many cases, even unfilmed.

Such a situation, probably unique in Western Europe, belies our reputation as a nation which values its history and suggests that at least in the cultural area, we are, to paraphrase Bob Geldof, something of a banana republic. In the fourteenth century it is found in Dublin, Kildare, Waterford and Kerry. Today the name is well scattered and relatively common only in Kerry and Antrim; in the latter county it is, of course, a seventeenth century British introduction. Originally settling around Glandore in west Cork in the early thirteenth century, these Cork Barretts obtained lands in Mayo during the invasion of the s and most Irish Barretts must descend from these related stocks.

Other Barretts were found in the early period in Tipperary and Kildare. In both Mayo and Cork powerful Barrett lineages forming clans along native lines thrived for centuries; the Cork group by conquering a territory just west of the city in the fourteenth century at the expense of other colonists. Barry This family take their toponym from the island of Barry off the south Welsh coast and appear to be of ultimate Flemish origin. From Pembroke they came to Cork in the s and later obtained lands in Connacht Castlebar, County Mayo is called from them , north Tipperary and near Dingle in Kerry.

The senior line, the earls of Barrymore, became extinct in but Barrys remain numerous in Cork and surrounding counties. Bennett A surname derived from the common French Christian name Benoit; the name was common and widespread in Leinster especially Kilkenny and Munster in the early period, doubtless commemorating many distinct and unrelated Benoits. Still today common in Leinster and Munster, the name is also numerous in Ulster, where it is of seventeenth century British origin. Bermingham The first members of this family came from the English midlands to Kildare with the first invaders in the s.

In the s they took part in the invasion of Connacht, thereby acquiring lands in Galway and Sligo. Finally the family acquired lands in Tipperary by marriage, in the s. Although the exact descent of the early generations is unclear it is certain that we are dealing with the one family, and thus that all Irish Berminghams descend from the one stock. Today the distribution of the surname still follows broadly that of the thirteenth century.

Of the same stock are the Corish family, who take their name from the Gaelic patronym of the early Berminghams, Mac Feorais from Piers de Bermingham. The name remains somewhat common in Dublin, Sligo and Tipperary Britt is almost exclusively the Munster form , the same regions the name was most prevalent during the thirteenth century. All Irish Burkes claim descent from this William. For a period, his descendants were among the most powerful lords of the colony, being the chief magnates of Connacht and Ulster while retaining extensive lands in Munster.

Butler Another great Anglo-Norman lineage like the Burkes, the Butlers descend from Theobald Walter who also came to Ireland with John in , and whose brother was the archbishop of Canterbury. John created Theobald the chief butler of his lordship of Ireland, hence the surname. The head of the family was created earl of Ormond in , reflecting the growing importance of the lineage, who by the end of that century had become the chief lordly family of south Leinster.

Several important junior branches evolved, especially those of Cahir and Dunboyne both of whose lands lay in Tipperary.

The senior line of the family, who donated Kilkenny Castle to the state in , are extant. The form Archdeacon remained interchangeable with McCody until the seventeenth century, when the latter dropped its Mac. Cody is much more common than Archdeacon today, although the latter is not extinct.

In the sixteenth century the surname was confined to Kilkenny and Tipperary, where it is still most numerous today, while it has spread further afield in the interim. Comerford This family derive their surname from a place in Staffordshire. Originally de Quemerford, the families original thirteenth century lands lay in Kilkenny and Waterford, from where the name has spread into Tipperary. Condon Derived from Caunteton, a place in south Wales.

Several sons of Nicholas and Mabil accompanied their uncle Raymond, one of the leading invaders of the s, to Ireland, and obtained lands from the latter in Carlow, Wexford and north east Cork. The family lost their Leinster lands to the Gaelic resurgence of the early fourteenth century but went on to form a minor lineage on their Cork lands, despite losing some of these to their deadly enemies and neighbours, the Roches of Fermoy.

Condon is still essentially a Cork and Tipperary surname. Jocelyn was the son of Gilbert de Angulo who obtained lands in Meath, while he himself partook in the invasion of Connacht in , obtaining the barony of Costello as it later came to be called in County Mayo. Here the Costellos formed a powerful lineage which endured for centuries. The name arrived in County Clare in the fourteenth century. Today the name is principally found in Limerick and Clare.

Dalton This family derive their surname from one of the at least five places called Alton in England. By the early fourteenth century the name had spread into Connacht where it did not flourish, and later in the same century according to MacLysaght to Munster. A branch of this family established itself in Mayo soon after. In the sixteenth century the name principally occurs in Westmeath, Meath and Connacht while today its strongholds are Dublin, Limerick and Galway. Dowdall A family bearing this English toponym Dovedale are found in County Louth in the s, and from them descend the later Dowdalls, a major family in the county for centuries after.

Today the surname is still mainly of north Leinster provenance. English The meaning of this name is self-explanatory. Since its arrival in Ireland at the time of the invasion this name has principally been found in Tipperary and Dublin. The earliest occurrence is in Dublin around , where the family was long established as a burgher family, a branch moving to Cork City in the fifteenth-century. The family was also prominent in County Meath from the fourteenth century onwards and is later found in County Waterford. Fitzgerald An account of this Norman-French aristocratic family is given in Part 2.

Counties where those bearing the surname of this great lineage are common are all the Munster counties, Dublin and Kildare. Fitzgibbon For the origins of this family see Part 2. Their lands lay in counties Cork and Limerick and a barony in the former county is still known as Condons and Clangibbons after them.

Fitzmaurice Like both previous entries this one concerns a branch of the great Geraldine family, whose aristocratic Norman-French ancestry is remembered by use of fitz, derived from the Norman-French fils. This lineage is exclusively associated with County Kerry, where the barony of Clanmaurice preserves the approximate outline of its earlier territory.

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Fitzsimons MacLysaght states that a family so-called first settled in County Mayo during the thirteenth-century whose Gaelic patronym was Mac an Ridire meaning sons of the knight. He goes on to state that a second and distinct group occurs in Leinster from the fourteenth century onwards. In the sixteenth century the name principally occurs in several Leinster counties and in County Down, and today the surname is principally found in Ulster and Leinster. Clearly, more work needs to be done on the history of this interesting surname. Fleming The majority of Irish Flemings must descend from the many individual Flemings see Part 2 who settled throughout the Anglo-Norman colonial area at the time of the invasion.

Certainly the name occurs in virtually every colonial county in the Justiciary Rolls of the period A particularly important family of the name were lords of Slane in County Meath. The surname is scattered throughout Ireland and those in the three southern provinces certainly descend in general from settlers of the Anglo-Norman period. In Ulster most Flemings must descend from seventeenth century Scottish settlers, Fleming being a leading Scottish surname although ultimately of the same origin as the Irish name.

Early records of probably unrelated individuals so styled occur in Wexford, Dublin, Limerick and Kerry, the prominent Wexford family, of Tacumshin, can be traced from the early fourteenth century onwards; over time the form of their name changes from Franceys to French. The Connacht Frenchs appear to descend from a Walter French who arrived in Galway City in the s; according to one account he was from Wexford. These surnames are well scattered today, those in Ulster may descend from planters of the seventeenth century.

Furlong This English surname occurs in Wexford in the s, with which county it remains chiefly associated, while also being associated from the same period with Dublin. Garland Derived from gernoun, an Old French word for mustache, the principal family of this name were important settlers in County Louth from early in the settlement. Several such men sporting facial hair may be the ancestors here as the name occurs early in several distinct areas.

The name is also found in early times in east Ulster and in Kildare. Today it is still found in the same areas, principally in Monaghan and Dublin. Gibbons In Ireland this is a County Mayo surname. The name is still chiefly found in Connacht. This family, like most of the south Welsh colonists, was probably of Flemish origin. The family was among the leaders of the invasion of Cork; most, if not all, of them must descend from Richard de Cogan who lived in the early thirteenth century.

Richard also possessed lands around Bray in Wicklow and obtained lands in Galway at the time of the Connacht invasion, which the family lost during the fourteenth century. Also in that century the greater share of the Cogan estate in Cork was overrun by the McCarthys and Barretts but they retained lands south of Cork City until the seventeenth century. Today the name is principally found in County Cork with a smaller concentration in Kildare, descendants perhaps of an early offshoot settled on the Leinster lands.

In the thirteenth-century the name occurs mostly in Waterford, of which city the family were burghers, from where it presumably spread to the city of Dublin and the County Cork town of Youghal. By the sixteenth-century the name is found in Waterford, Tipperary and Dublin, the same three counties where it principally occurs today. Grace This surname is certainly derived from the French word gros, meaning fat. In fact they descend from William le Gras of Chipping Sodbury in Gloucestershire, several of whose sons came to Leinster in the train of William Marshall I in the early thirteenth century and obtained lands in Kilkenny, Carlow and Laois from him.

William was a Norman aristocrat with a pedigree traceable back to eleventh century France. Today the name is principally found in Kilkenny and Dublin. Hackett This name derives from an English Christian name of ultimate Norse origin. The surname appears to have three distinct origins in Ireland. Firstly, those of around Cashel in County Tipperary, where the name is on record from at least the mid-thirteenth century. These remained very prominent in the area for centuries after, and the modern Hacketts of Tipperary and Kilkenny probably descend from them.

Secondly, those of County Kildare, who are really de Ridelsfords a place in Lincolnshire , Haket being a prominent Christian name of this family. These must descend from theHaket de Ridelsford of Kineagh who lived in the late thirteenth century, the first Ridelsfords coming there at the time of the invasion; the name remains present in Kildare and Dublin. Lastly, we have the Hacketts of Ulster, particularly County Tyrone. Here the name must be a British introduction of the seventeenth century. Herbert Derived from a French earlier Frankish Christian name. In the thirteenth century Herberts were found in Kildare, Dublin, Waterford and Cork; the last county also had a family of FitzHerberts.

By the sixteenth century the name occurs in Dublin, Kildare, Limerick and Kerry; these Kerry Herberts are not to be confused with the English Elizabethan settlers in the same county. In the following centuries the name spread westwards from Wexford into Kilkenny, Waterford and Limerick.

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The family first settled in Meath at the time of the invasion and soon acquired lands in Kerry and Connacht. Today the name is principally found in Meath, Galway, Roscommon and Kerry. This John was the son of William de Burgh, a younger son of the senior line, who died in In so far as I can discover the name does not occur in the early records which would indicate that the Jennings of Cork and Armagh are descendants of later British settlers. The surname is also a common English one deriving from a diminutive of John.

Jordan Irish Jordans have at least three distinct origins. Firstly come those descended from Jordan de Exeter i. Jordan was, of course, a popular Anglo-Norman Christian name, derived from the river the Crusaders bathed in, and the surname was also common in the Anglo-Norman period in Meath, Dublin and Kildare. Today the surname is common in Dublin, Galway, Mayo and Antrim; in the latter county its introduction must date to the Ulster Plantation of the seventeenth century.

Joye was an Anglo-Norman Christian name of uncertain origin while Joce was a Christian name of two distinct origins, one French, the other Breton. The other region where Joyces are common today is County Cork. Here in the thirteenth century we find both Joyes and Joces, but the evidence points clearly to a Joce ancestry for the Joyces of east Cork. In the thirteenth century there were Joyes in Dublin and these later spread to Meath, yet strangely today most Irish Joys are found in County Waterford.

Keating This name derives from the Welsh word cethyn, meaning dark. Well before the invasion of Ireland these Kethins had become absorbed into the Anglo-Norman society of south Wales. Hailing from Pembrokeshire, the family were among the first settlers in Wexford and soon acquired lands in Tipperary, Limerick and Cork.

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A marriage connection with the Kildare Berminghams in the fourteenth century may explain the later Keating presence in County Kildare. Lambert This derives from a Germanic Christian name popularised by a Flemish saint. The family are principally associated with south Wexford, from at least onwards, and today the name is mainly found in Dublin and Wexford.

In the next article in this series we will continue to look at the histories of the most numerous of the Irish Anglo-Norman surnames.

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Thirteenth century sources record the name in several Munster and Leinster counties. In later centuries one branch was especially prominent in Kilkenny City while the name remains well distributed in Ireland today. In County Limerick the surname has become Lillis. Mason This occupational surname occurs in several Leinster counties in the thirteenth century and is found in Meath and Tipperary Cashel in the sixteenth century.

McElligott This family descend from Elias fitz Norman, one of the early settlers who acquired lands in Waterford, Tipperary and Kerry, and who died around His eldest son, Richard, inherited the east Munster lands, which soon passed to the Rokelle family via his granddaughter Margery; her descendants now bear the Waterford surname Rocket. In time the name born by the descendants of the younger son, William fitz Elias, who had inherited the Kerry lands, transformed itself via Gaelic into McElligott.

The family were prominent gentry in that county until the seventeenth century dispossessions and the surname remains common there today. Surprisingly little seems known about its early history. Mead[e] This is a rare example of a toponym of Irish origin, denoting an Anglo-Norman whose first place of settlement in Ireland was County Meath. The Cork Meads were especially prominent as merchants in Cork, Kinsale and Youghal, and the name remains common in this county. Morris The greater portion of Irish Morrises must descend from Jordan de Mareis, nephew of the famous Geoffrey de Mareis the Justiciar of the early years of the invasion.

Norman ancestors , norman surnames

This family came to Ireland from Devon but Mareis, the French word for a marsh, indicates an ultimate Norman origin for the family. The descendants of this family, who include Lord Killanin, ex-president of the International Olympic Committee , later adopted the form Morris, although some Tipperary Mareises became Morres. In Mayo Morrises may in fact be Prendergasts, as outlined below.

In Kerry the Nagles were merchants in Tralee and Dingle. Nash From the thirteenth centuryonwards this surname is common in West Limerick from where it spread into surrounding areas. The name is still principally found in Limerick and Kerry. Nugent This surname has at least three origins in Ireland. Firstly, the Leinster Nugents, who descend from Hugh de Nugent and his relatives.

Hugh was one of the first settlers, some of whose descendants became barons of Delvin and later earls of Westmeath. Hugh was of Norman ancestry and his surname is derived from one of several Nogents in Normandy. The Ulster Nugents are likely to derive from English settlers of the seventeenth century whose ultimate origin is identical to those of Leinster.