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Prize Winner of the Chadwick F. Collection Cornell Studies in Political Economy. Publisher Cornell University Press. Title First Published 24 June Product Detail Trade paperback US. Publication Ithaca, United States. Main content page count Illustrations 2 line drawings. Cornell Studies in Political Economy.

The History Of The Idea Of Europe

Newsletters Comment Print this page. The notion of "Europe" and the " Western World " has been intimately connected with the concept of " Christianity and Christendom "; many even attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity. Christianity , including the Roman Catholic Church , [] [] has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century, [] [] [] [] and for at least a millennium and a half, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture , even though the religion was inherited from the Middle East.

Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization , guiding the course of philosophy , art , and science. Other religions, including Judaism, Hinduism , and Buddhism are minority religions though Tibetan Buddhism is the majority religion of Russia's Republic of Kalmykia. The 20th century saw the revival of Neopaganism through movements such as Wicca and Druidry.

Europe has become a relatively secular continent, with an increasing number and proportion of irreligious , atheist and agnostic people, who make up about There are a particularly high number of self-described non-religious people in the Czech Republic, Estonia , Sweden, former East Germany, and France. Both have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus. It has a small part of its territories located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the continent. For the politico-economic union, see European Union. For other uses, see Europe disambiguation. List of transcontinental countries and Boundaries between the continents of Earth. Regions of Europe and Core Europe. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages.

Dark Ages historiography and Age of Migrations. Charlemagne's empire in Roland pledges fealty to Charlemagne , Holy Roman Emperor.

A Certain Idea of Europe

Modern era and History of Europe. Geology of Europe and Geological history of Europe. List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe , International organizations in Europe , Regions of Europe , and European integration. List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe and Area and population of European countries. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe.

List of European countries by population and Ageing of Europe. Ethnic groups in Europe. Genetic history of Europe. Immigration to Europe and European diaspora. European folklore and European art. List of Europe-related articles and Outline of Europe. Europe portal Geography portal. The population and area figures refer to the entire state, including the de facto independent part Northern Cyprus which is not recognised as a sovereign nation by the vast majority of sovereign nations, nor the UN.

Population and density figures are from the first results of census and are given without the disputed territory of Kosovo. Population and area details include European portion only: Amsterdam is the official capital, while The Hague is the administrative seat. However, only the population figure refers to the entire country. The population and area figures include the entire state respectively. This includes the exclave of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the region Nagorno-Karabakh that has declared, and de facto achieved , independence.

Nevertheless, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states. International recognition , however, is limited. The precision of these figures is compromised by the ambiguous geographical extent of Europe and the lack of references for European portions of transcontinental countries. Its sovereign status is unclear. Its population is July CIA estimate. Their status as sovereign nations is not recognised by a vast majority of sovereign nations, nor the UN. Population figures stated as of census and estimates respectively.

Its status as a sovereign nation is not recognised by any sovereign nation, nor the UN. Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 6 March Retrieved April 20, Ancient Greece is often called the cradle of western civilization. Ideas from literature and science also have their roots in ancient Greece. The Uniqueness of Western Civilization. Indo-European poetry and myth. The east face of Helicon: Note also that certain countries in Europe, such as France, have territories lying geographically outside Europe , but which are nevertheless considered integral parts of that country.

Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 9 June James Rennell, The geographical system of Herodotus examined and explained , Volume 1, Rivington , p. Genesis and the Jewish antiquities of Flavius Josephus. Die Fragmente , vol. De Gruyter, , fragm. A History, by Norman Davies, p. Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on 8 January Archived from the original on 16 October The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Archived from the original on 15 June The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization.

Early Physics and Astronomy: Cambridge University Press , The Battle of Salamis: The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. The Empire at Bay. A History of Greek Literature. Cantor , The Medieval World to The Politics of Identity and Security. It is difficult to establish exactly when Islam first appeared in Russia because the lands that Islam penetrated early in its expansion were not part of Russia at the time, but were later incorporated into the expanding Russian Empire.

Islam reached the Caucasus region in the middle of the seventh century as part of the Arab conquest of the Iranian Sassanian Empire. Spielvogel 1 February The Essential World History. Retrieved 20 January The Byzantine Empire also interacted with the world of Islam to its east and the new European civilization of the west.

Spectres of Europe: Europe's Past, Present, and Future - Oxford Handbooks

Both interactions proved costly and ultimately fatal. These Christian allies did not accept the authority of Byzantium, and the Fourth Crusade that sacked Constantinople and established the so-called Latin Empire that lasted until was a fatal wound from which the empire never recovered until its fall at the hands of the Ottoman Turks in Queller and Madden The Byzantine Empire Revised Edition.

And though the final blow was struck by the Ottoman Turks, it can plausibly be argued that the fatal injury was inflicted by the Latin crusaders in Blood, Valor, Iniquity, Reason, Faith. City of Man's Desire: A Novel of Constantinople. Magill's Guide to Military History: However, the fifty-seven years of plunder that followed made the Byzantine Empire, even when it retook the capital in , genuinely weak.

Beginning in , the empire was further weakened by a civil war that lasted until When the Ottomans overran their lands and besieged Constantinople in , sheer poverty and weakness were the causes of the capital city's final fall. Irvin 10 January History of the World Christian Movement: Earliest Christianity To Continuum International Publishing Group. Not only did the fourth crusade further harden the resentments Greek-speaking Christians felt toward the Latin West, but it further weakened the empire of Constantinople, many say fatally so.

After the restoration of Greek imperial rule the city survived as the capital of Byzantium for another two centuries, but it never fully recovered. Frucht 31 December An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture.


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Although the empire was revived, the events of had so weakened Byzantium that it was no longer a great power. Later they established themselves in the Anatolian peninsula at the expense of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines, however, had been severely weakened by the sack of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade in and the Western occupation of much of the empire for the next half century.

Expanding America's Global Supremacy. Western Christians, not Muslims, fatally crippled Byzantine power and opened Islam's path into the West. They fatally wounded Byzantium, which was the main cause of its weakened condition when the Muslim onslaught came. Even on the eve of its final collapse, the precondition for any Western help was submission in Florence. The course of the Russian history. Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 10 June Archived from the original on 7 June France in the Sixteenth Century.

Macmillan Publishers , Archived 9 November at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 1 April Retrieved 3 November The Search for Understanding , pp. The Civilisation of the Renaissance in Italy translation by S. Penguin History of Europe. The Library of Iberian resources online.


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